Ischemia - when the brain fails to work - Types

September 14, 2008

  • Ischemia - when the brain fails to work
  • Kinds
  • Heart and kidney
  • The legs and the spinal cord
  • Abdominal

 ischemia types

What ischemia

Ischemia - a weakening of blood circulation in an organ or body portion due to a decrease in blood flow, which leads to a shortage of blood supply to tissue (not receive the necessary nutrients and oxygen).


Why is there

Ischemia can occur from severe emotional distress (fear, pain, anger), physical (cold, trauma), chemical (chemical poisons entering the body, such as smoking) or biological (biological poisons) impacts and so on. Finally, ischemia may occur against a background of increased blood viscosity, especially if this is combined with the restriction of the vessel lumen. Spasm of the blood vessels leads to a slowing of blood flow until it stops.

An obstacle for the promotion of the blood vessel can be closed by a clot, atherosclerotic plaque, thickening of the walls of blood vessels, vascular compression with increasing pressure in the surrounding tissue, or tumor, and so on.


What happens in the body

All these factors lead to a sharp deficiency of blood supply to the tissues. Fabrics first begin to suffer from lack of oxygen, while primarily affected neural tissue, since it is most intense metabolism Improves metabolism and losing weight without dieting  Improves metabolism and losing weight without dieting
 . And since the brain does not tolerate the lack of it needed for the life energy, the energy begins to flow from the breakdown of carbohydrates, with a large number of turns is not completely disintegrated substances that poison the body. All this leads to a general metabolic disturbance Metabolism: The basis of life of all living things  Metabolism: The basis of life of all living things
   and dysfunction of organs and tissues.

Character dysfunction of organs and tissues depends on the location of ischemia and its duration, since different tissues are not equally sensitive to deficiency of blood supply. The least sensitive bone, cartilage and connective tissue, and most - the cells of the cortex of the brain and the heart muscle.


Changes in the myocardium (heart muscle)

The muscle fibers of the myocardium changes metabolism, impaired activity of enzyme systems, resulting in profound changes, and the cells cease to function. Extinction occurs that part of the myocardium, which is powered by a change of the blood vessel, that is myocardial infarction. This is followed by a sharp pain, and cardiac abnormalities. Ischemia in a high functional activity of an organ or tissue is more dangerous than the rest. That is why it is so dangerous myocardial infarction.


Changes in brain

When cerebral ischemia Cerebral ischemia - how to overcome illness  Cerebral ischemia - how to overcome illness
   the affected area of ​​the brain does not function. This ischemic stroke, in which there may be a rapid loss of consciousness, stop breathing and heartbeat, memory disorder and movements.

The brain is characterized by a high level of energy metabolism, but, despite this, the collateral (new blood vessels that replace the affected) circulation in this area is developing with great difficulty. This explains the difficulty of the recovery period after a stroke.


Changes in the lower extremities

If limb ischemia Lower limb ischemia - what is the prognosis of the disease  Lower limb ischemia - what is the prognosis of the disease
   first there is a feeling fatigue, heaviness in the leg while walking, tingling sensation in the skin, cold fingers. Then comes the intermittent claudication (the appearance of sharp pain due to insufficient blood supply to the foot during walking, which take place when stopped), a sharp and persistent blanching of the skin. This occlusive disease, which can result in the loss of the limb.


How to treat ischemia

In the treatment of ischemia seek to create conditions for the development of compensatory capacity of the organism. This means that instead of changing the vessel to bypass the need to develop new blood vessels (collaterals), suitable to the body. To do this, use different medications, physical therapy, and surgery in which the affected artery is replaced by prostheses.

Acute ischemia is always accompanied by severe pain, so be sure to enter analgesic drugs.

Be sure to research carried out coagulation and anticoagulation systems of blood, is determined by its viscosity. In case of violations in this area are special corrective drugs.

Since vascular lesions rarely occur in individual organs, be sure to conduct a survey of the whole body in order to detect and treat other areas of ischemia.


The prognosis of ischemia

With proper and timely begun treatment the prognosis is favorable: there may come a full recovery. But if on the site of ischemia there was a destruction of tissue cells of an organ, instead of these cells grows connective tissue, which, of course, reduces the function of the organ.

Heart defects - time heals? - Types and symptoms

May 28, 2009

  • Heart defects - time heals?
  • Types and symptoms

What is heart disease and their causes

Heart defects - it is congenital or acquired heart valve changes, partitions or walls of the heart and the waste of it large vessels, which are able to change the direction of the blood flow within the heart and lead to heart failure.

Congenital malformations occur as an anomaly of the heart in utero under the influence of various external and internal factors. Causes of congenital different. In some cases, crucial heredity and the influence of hormonal imbalance mother, in other - the impact of various external factors, such as viral diseases, ionizing radiation, various intoxications (eg, alcohol), medications taken by the mother during pregnancy and so hereinafter.

Acquired heart disease develops as a result of heart disease or injury suffered by birth. Acquired heart diseases are many times greater than the birth. The main cause of acquired heart disease is a rheumatic disease Rheumatic fever - are possible complications of heart  Rheumatic fever - are possible complications of heart
 . Other reasons include atherosclerosis (the elderly), syphilis Syphilis - punishment of Venus  Syphilis - punishment of Venus
 , Coronary heart disease and injuries of the heart, which may be complicated by the formation of various defects.

 Types and features | Heart defects - time heals?

Types of congenital heart defects

All congenital heart is conventionally divided into two groups: the "blue" and "pale" vices. The first group includes congenital heart disease with early cyanosis (a bluish skin). Of this group, isolated tetralogy of Fallot, which leads to a decrease in blood flow in the pulmonary circulation (pulmonary circulation transports blood from the lungs to the heart and vice versa), and the other vices that are, on the contrary, an excessive filling of the pulmonary blood (eg arterio-venous pulmonary fistula).

The second group of "pale" defects are birth defects without cyanosis of the original, such as a defect or a ventricular atrial septal, nezarosshy ductus arteriosus, and others.

 Types and features | Heart defects - time heals?

Types of acquired heart disease

Acquired heart defects are divided into isolated (affecting one heart valve) and combined (defeat multiple valves). If a valve has several defects, such a defect is called a match. For example, a mitral heart valve (between the left atrium and ventricle) include: mitral insufficiency, mitral stenosis, combined mitral defect with prevalence of insufficiency or stenosis, or without a clear predominance of insufficiency or stenosis.

 Types and features | Heart defects - time heals?

Signs of heart disease

Congenital heart disease may not manifest at first, but if changes are severe enough to three years they have seen: the child behind in the physical (and sometimes mental) development, there is shortness of breath during physical exertion, pallor or cyanosis of the skin.

In the "blue" heart defects (eg, tetralogy of Fallot) can occur attacks of excitement and anxiety, combined with increasing shortness of breath and cyanosis of the skin. Sometimes the attacks end in loss of consciousness. To reduce breathlessness these kids try squatting or cross-legged, with his legs crossed.

At the "pale" evils of the age of about ten years of age can receive complaints about the growing headache, shortness of breath during physical and mental stress, dizziness Dizziness - if the ground is slipping from under his feet  Dizziness - if the ground is slipping from under his feet
 , Heart pain, weakness and malaise.

Acquired defects may manifest themselves in different ways, depending on which parts of the heart has undergone changes. Thus, when mitral (narrowing of the opening between the left atrium and ventricle and insufficient closing of valves holes changed) initially appears increasing shortness of breath, pain in the heart, heartbeat, feeling disruptions of the heart. Then may appear hemoptysis (a consequence of the stagnation of blood in the lungs), thrombosis (blockage of blood vessels), expressed cardiac arrhythmia.

Many congenital heart age run. But if the defect was not alone and growing signs of heart failure Heart failure - when the heart is unable to cope with the work  Heart failure - when the heart is unable to cope with the work
 Then held his surgery. Most of the operations at congenital heart diseases are worked out and tested practice methods.

Acquired defects initially treated conservatively, without surgery. But there is no effect, and build-up sign that the heart is unable to cope with its load operation is conducted or expand the narrowed openings or prosthetic heart valves.

Heart disease - it is not a sentence, but you need to know about his presence and to carry out all the prescribing physician.

  Galina Romanenko