- Myocardial infarction - the most formidable diagnosis
Myocardial infarction is usually caused by a blood clot that stops blood flow in the coronary arteries. To prevent damage to the heart muscle you need urgent treatment, so if you have symptoms of a heart attack
Myocardial infarction - symptoms
should immediately call an ambulance.
There are several varieties of myocardial infarction, which is determined by means of an electrocardiogram (ECG). Two main types of myocardial infarction-segment elevation ST (STEMI) and without ST elevation ST (NSTEMI). Treatment depends on the type of infarct.
What happens during a heart attack
Myocardial infarction is one of the coronary arteries or small branches is suddenly blocked. That part of the heart muscle, which receives blood through the blood vessel is deprived of oxygen supply. This can lead to the death of heart muscle tissue, if not restore blood flow as quickly as possible.
If one of the blocked coronary arteries, may be affected a significant portion of the heart muscle; when blocked coronary artery branches bude less extensive damage.
People who have experienced a myocardial infarction in the next few weeks, the dead muscle tissue is replaced by scar tissue.
When STEMI artery supplying blood to part of the heart muscle is blocked completely, with NSTEMI - partially.
The most common cause of myocardial infarction are blood clots, or thrombi. Blood clots are formed in healthy arteries; They appear in the blood vessels, the walls of which have atheroma
Atheroma - it is better to remove
Or atherosclerotic plaques. These plaques are formed gradually over several years, and one or more places in the coronary arteries. Each plaque has a solid outer layer, under which is a soft fatty substance. When the upper layer is formed crack atheroma in blood platelet content falls, which triggers the formation of blood clots.
Much less myocardial infarction due to other causes; Among them: an inflammation of the coronary arteries, a stab wound that affected the heart, blood clot is the coronary arteries, coronary artery spasm (may be caused by, for example, cocaine), a complication of heart surgery
Heart surgery - when you need it?
and some rare heart disease
Heart disease and heart attacks: that every woman should know
Factors that increase the risk of heart attack include:
- High blood pressure;
- Elevated cholesterol levels;
- Passive lifestyle;
- Myocardial infarction is a family history.
Aspirin. For suspected myocardial infarction patients are often given aspirin or clopidogrel. Both of these drugs thin the blood, although the principle of their action is not the same.
Injections are usually made of heparin for several days after myocardial infarction, to prevent the formation of new blood clots.
Painkillers. In order to facilitate the patient's condition may require a very strong painkillers.
The most important part of the treatment of patients with myocardial infarction, however, is to restore blood flow to the heart muscle. It uses two basic methods:
Emergency angioplasty - the best treatment option, if there is a possibility of its application, and if you can do it within a few hours after the onset of symptoms. During this procedure through a large artery in the groin area if the arm is introduced thin flexible rod at the end of which is a device, like a small balloon. Using X-ray ball is introduced into the blocked portion of the coronary artery and inflated there. Then, the stent is inserted into an artery - something like a metal grid, which will not allow the arteries to narrow again.
Injections, collapsing the clot - is an alternative to angioplasty. This method is often used - it is simple and occupies a minimum amount of time. One of the most common drugs used in the treatment of myocardial infarction - streptokinase. Patients who were injected with one of streptokinase can not give it to subsequent heart attacks, because the body produces antibodies to it and the second time he will not act.