Eczema - is difficult to treat

November 23, 2008

   Among all the diseases of the skin eczema - one of the most common. It is an allergic inflammatory disease, which takes a long time, with periods of remission of symptoms alternate with exacerbations.

 Eczema - is difficult to treat

Causes of eczema

Eczema is caused by a complex of human exposure to many factors: genetic, allergic, neuropsychiatric, metabolic, endocrine and environmental effects. Therefore, the disease usually need the combined effect of several of them.

Environmental factors that can trigger the occurrence of eczema, very much. Most often it is:

  • Nickel (jewelry, keys, coins, glasses frame);
  • Chromium (paints, cement, colored leather and fur);
  • Cobalt (ceramics, paints, cement, plastic);
  • Formaldehyde (antiseptic preparations, paints, textiles);
  • Parafiniendiamin (paints and cosmetics);
  • Medications that are applied topically (antibiotics, plasters);
  • Plants (e.g. tulips);
  • Various microorganisms and fungi;
  • Rubber, as a crude oil, turpentine, a lubricating fluid.

Stress - is one of the factors that triggers the development of eczema. Often the occurrence of the disease or its aggravation are associated with any psychological and emotional trauma.

Eczema is more common in children who were transferred to artificial feeding in the first few days of life or early started receiving complementary foods Introduce solid foods - how not to be mistaken with a choice of products?  Introduce solid foods - how not to be mistaken with a choice of products?
   (especially cow's milk, porridge, cooked on it, meat and fish broth). These products give rise to exudative diathesis - organism predisposition to develop allergic diseases.

 Eczema - is difficult to treat

Shapes and symptoms

Depending on the symptoms and characteristics of eczema is of several types:

  • True eczema .  It occurs acutely and is manifested in the form of swelling and redness of the skin, which in the future there are small bubbles (microvesicles) .  These bubbles are quickly opened, and in their place are formed superficial skin defects - erosion surface is abundantly covered with liquid .  After some time the inflammation is reduced, the bubbles disappear, and instead of erosions formed grayish yellow crusts .  Going acute course of chronic eczema occurs gradually .  The affected area is sealed, skin pattern on the site becomes more visible .  This process is called lichenification .  On the skin, in addition to crusts, desquamation appears .  The rash is typically first appear on the face and hands and then apply to the skin of the trunk and extremities .  True eczema always accompanied by itching, which intensified during exacerbation .  It can cause neurological disorders, up to insomnia .
  • Microbial eczema is acute. This form of the disease develops around the infected wounds, sores, fistulas, trophic ulcers. On the skin appear large pockets, which can be seen at the edges torn away the top layer of the epidermis. In eczematous surface bubbles are visible, surface erosion with weeping pus and crust. Sometimes the lesions may increase in size, and around them on healthy skin appear some small bubbles and peeling.
  • Varicose eczema occurs on the background of varicose veins of the lower extremities. Outbreaks of eczema are located near varicose veins and varicose ulcers around. Injuries these areas and increased sensitivity to medicines contribute to the progression of eczema.
  • Seborrheic eczema develops on the fibrous part, ears, and in nososchechnyh nasolabial folds, between the shoulder blades and in the sternum. In these places there are red scaly patches, which are covered with a variety of nodules of yellowish-brown color.
  • Occupational eczema occurs in people who are at work are faced with certain harmful factors. It is their manifestation does not differ from the true eczema.
  • Disgidroticheskaya eczema is localized to the palms and soles, which are mild redness and blisters prevail. In some cases, they coalesce and form large blisters that turn into erosion, often in their place are purulent crusts. Fireplace eczema is gradually spreading to the dorsum of the hands and feet.

 Eczema - is difficult to treat

Treatment and prevention

Treatment is chosen individually, should take into account the reasons which led to the emergence or exacerbation of the disease. Necessary measures will eliminate neuroendocrine disorders and chronic foci of infection in the body, restriction of contact with water and to identify those foods that cause allergies. If this is impossible, you need to stick to a diet with the exception of seafood, smoked meats, spices, eggs, milk, chocolate, nuts, honey, citrus fruits, tomatoes and alcohol.

In order to reduce allergic reactions appointed antihistamines (loratidine, fexofenadine). With a very strong itch and sleep disorders Dreams: how to understand our dreams  Dreams: how to understand our dreams
   shows antihistamines with sedative (soothing) components (hlorpiramin, hifenadina, mebhydrolin). In the case of severe eczema taken glucocorticoids (hormones, reduces the severity of inflammatory and allergic reactions).

External treatment is selected depending on the form of eczema and nature of the inflammatory process. In acute inflammation used aerosols with glucocorticoids, lotions and bandages with anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and astringent solutions at low concentrations. When microbial eczema for a short period also appointed bandages with staphylococcal bacteriophage Staphylococcal bacteriophage - possible drug  Staphylococcal bacteriophage - possible drug

After reducing the symptoms of acute inflammation can apply pastes and ointments. When eczema well help ihtiolovaya, Naftalan, Naftalan Tar-paste. They can not be applied to the skin, covered with hair, moist surface and compress.

In chronic eczema ointments that soften the crusts and scales, and facilitate their removal. Patients with hypersensitivity to multiple drugs administered zinc and Naftalan ointment, and the rest - indometacin and ointments that contain ihtiola, tar and sulfur. In marked inflammation and itching well help ointments containing corticosteroids (prednisolone ointment Sinalar, Elokim).

After calming down inflammation in chronic eczema prescribed selective (selective) phototherapy Phototherapy - restores vitality  Phototherapy - restores vitality
 . In areas lichenification impose paraffin baths, ozocerite and mud. In some cases, be useful acupuncture and laser therapy.

In all forms of eczema need to observe good personal hygiene, it is the prevention of infection of accession. But with extensive skin lesions baths and showers is temporarily prohibited. Small pustules should be lubricated with aqueous or alcoholic solution of aniline dyes (brilliant green, methylene blue). People suffering from eczema, it is not recommended to wear wool, flannel and synthetic underwear.

Eczema - a chronic disease, so all patients should be composed in the dispensary and regularly visit a dermatologist.

Article Tags:
  • eczema

Skin diseases - what to do when violated the basic functions of the skin - the epidermis

August 24, 2008

  • Skin diseases - what to do when violated the basic functions of the skin
  • The epidermis

Our skin serves as a calling card that reflects the age, lifestyle, occupation, habits. As the skin can even be diagnosed if a person is suffering from a disease. Skin - is not only a cover for the body, but also very complex organ that performs the important function of protecting the body from the damaging effect of the mechanical, physical, chemical and infectious factors. Skin has the ability to:

  • to restore the damage caused by using epithelialization (proliferation at the wound surface of skin cells);
  • to maintain a constant body temperature;
  • display with sweat harmful to the body substance;
  • prevent ingress of harmful substances into the body;
  • perceive tactile, thermal and painful stimuli;
  • perform the functions of the immune barrier: the skin permanently inhabit many bacteria, fungi and viruses, but inside the body, they do not penetrate.

 The epidermis | Cutaneous disease - what to do when violated the basic functions of the skin

The structure of the skin

Human skin covers his whole body, and only in the natural orifices (mouth, nose, urinary organs, anus) enters the mucosa. The skin consists of the epidermis, the dermis and subcutaneous fat.

 The epidermis | Cutaneous disease - what to do when violated the basic functions of the skin

What is the epidermis

The outer layer of skin is called the epidermis, a thickness of 0, 15 mm (on the palms and soles - 1, 5 mm). The epidermis is in turn divided into the lower basal layer, followed by prickly, brilliant, and the upper - a horny layers. The basal layer is always the formation of new cells, which gradually move toward the stratum corneum. The horny layer is in contact with the external environment and opposes its influence. The top layer of squamous cell does not have a strong cell-cell junctions and therefore easily peeled.

In the cells of the epidermis contains beads brown-black - the pigment melanin. In response to the dangerous to the body short-wave ultraviolet radiation from the sun increases the amount of melanin, the skin is covered with a tan.

On average, the thorny layer of the epidermis have special Langerhans cells responsible for the immune defenses of the skin. The brilliant layer of the epidermis is composed of a protein substance, strongly refracts light.

  • Actually the skin or dermis

The dermis is located below the epidermis. It is located sweat and sebaceous glands, hair follicles, nerve endings and small blood and lymphatic vessels. Elasticity, strength and elongation of the skin provides a large number of collagen fibers which are located in the dermis.

  • Subcutaneous adipose tissue

Subcutaneous adipose tissue serves as a protection against mechanical and thermal influences. Bunches of connective tissue fibers form a lattice structure that allows the skin to move easily over the underlying tissues, and return to the scene.

  • The barrier function of the skin

The barrier function of the skin is to protect internal organs and tissues against external harmful influences of diverse nature. However, the skin is not completely impenetrable boundary between the inner and outer environment. It may be both permeable to influence from the outside, and vice versa. Furthermore, the location of the area of ​​skin, the stratum corneum thickness, presence or absence of grease on the skin and its qualitative composition make significant adjustments to the rate of penetration of substances through the skin.

The first barrier is represented by leather fat layer covering the epidermis. Another major obstacle to the various impacts is the stratum corneum, which could be overcome, there are several ways: intracellular, extracellular or through ducts of sebaceous and sweat glands.

 The epidermis | Cutaneous disease - what to do when violated the basic functions of the skin

Thermoregulatory and excretory function of the skin

Body temperature should be maintained at a constant level that is regulated heat production and heat. The most effective way to return excess heat is the evaporation of sweat.

All types of skin made the perception of highly sensitive points, the number of which in different parts of the skin varies widely. Thus, the number of pain points to 1 cm2 skin surface an average of 100-200, tactile (corresponding to the touch) - 25, cold - 12-15, the heat - 1-2.

 The epidermis | Cutaneous disease - what to do when violated the basic functions of the skin

Synthesis of vitamin D

Because of the important functions of the skin to the body it should be noted the synthesis of vitamin D, which occurs under the action of ultraviolet radiation. Vitamin D is needed to maintain calcium and related phosphorus metabolism, which is indispensable to the formation of skeletal muscle contraction and normal course of basic metabolic processes in the cell.

His skin we see every day and cease to notice it as long as it does not make itself felt in any violation. This is where you and useful knowledge about the structure and function of the skin. Knowing how to construct the skin, we can guess where the failure occurred, and what should be done to restore it.

Galina Romanenko

Article Tags:
  • skin problems