Clotrimazole - effective against bacteria - Fungal infections
November 16, 2008
- Clotrimazole - effective against bacteria
- Fungal infections
Fungal infections or mycoses caused by different types of fungi. Fungi are known to cause diseases such as pityriasis versicolor
Ringworm - not only infectious disease
, Athlete's foot, trichophytosis, microsporia, Candidiasis and many others.
Some kinds of fungi live permanently in the body and cause disease only in weakening the body's defenses. Such diseases include candidiasis or thrush.
A large spread of fungal diseases is another reason that patients usually do not give them much importance and are treated independently, without reference to the doctor. And it is in vain: the fungus can cause complications:
- sensitization of the organism with subsequent formation of allergic diseases (diseases of the skin and the common cold to asthma);
- additional bacterial or viral infection;
- fungus spread on the internal organs, which can cause severe general condition.
What is clotrimazole
Clotrimazole - a drug for topical (external) treatment of fungal infections of the skin and mucous membranes. Clotrimazole has antifungal, antibacterial, antiprotozoal (impact on the simplest, such as Giardia), including protivotrihomonadnyh action (Trichomonas are simple).
How does clotrimazole
Clotrimazole action mechanism is that it acts on a component of the cell membrane (membrane) fungi, thus changing its permeability. From the cells exit the necessary substances such as potassium and intracellular phosphorus compounds, which leads to its disintegration. Clotrimazole acts mainly on dividing and growing microorganisms. Depending on its concentration in the medical preparation it was suspending development (fungistatic effect) or destroy (fungicidal effect) cells of the fungus. Clotrimazole also prevents the conversion of Candida in the mycelium (mycelium composed of branched filaments) that can spread to the internal organs.
Strains of fungi with natural resistance (immunity) to clotrimazole, are rare. Initial resistance clotrimazole described only for certain fungal strains Candida.
Clotrimazole is also effective against some types of bacteria: staphylococcus, streptococcus, gardnerellas. In high concentrations, it can suppress the vital activity of vaginal Trichomonas.
The drug is poorly absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes, accumulate in the top layer of the skin and mucous membranes.
During clinical trials there was no evidence of carcinogenicity (ability to cause malignant diseases), mutagenic (does not impact the appearance of new genes and properties of the organism) and fertility (ability to birth). But in laboratory studies have found abnormalities in pregnant rats (effects on the fetus) when taking clotrimazole inside.
Which diseases can be applied clotrimazole
Clotrimazole applied topically for fungal diseases of the skin and mucous membranes as ringworm, tinea, trichophytosis, athlete, microsporia, candidiasis, a fungal interdigital erosion, fungal paronychia, fungal infections, complicated by a bacterial infection, multicolored lichen
Colorful lichen: relapses
, Erythrasma, thrush, vulvovaginal candidiasis, trichomoniasis. In addition, it is used to cleanse the birth canal before delivery.
Contraindications to the use of clotrimazole
As with any drug, clotrimazole has its contraindications:
- Hypersensitivity to the drug;
- Pregnancy and breast-feeding
Breast-feeding: feed - and no nails!
Especially during the first trimester of pregnancy)
Side effects of clotrimazole
Clotrimazole can cause allergic reactions that manifest on the skin in the form of itching, burning, redness and swelling of skin, blisters appeared on her, irritation and flaking. Mucosal allergy can manifest itself as itching, burning, redness and swelling of the mucous membrane, vaginal discharge
women, frequent urination, burning sensation in the penis in men, pain during sexual intercourse.
As used clotrimazole
For the treatment of skin infections carried treatment clotrimazole cream or solution for external use. For the treatment of vaginal infections apply vaginal creams and pills. To treat infections of mouth and throat lozenges are produced in the mouth. In the treatment of clotrimazole advisable to follow a diet low in sugar and stop wearing tight pants and tights. Clothing should be made of natural fabrics (such as cotton).
Hyperpigmentation: Causes and Treatment - Factors of manifestations
November 28, 2010
- Hyperpigmentation: Causes and Treatment
- Factors of manifestations
What is hyperpigmentation?
Hyperpigmentation - a skin condition in which some of its areas become noticeably darker in color than the surrounding areas. Usually these dark spots appear on the face, arms, shoulders, the neck. The most common examples of excessive pigmentation of the skin - the so-called "liver spots", solar lentigines and even ordinary freckles. Some types of hyperpigmentation if untreated can lead to skin cancer. If you notice unexplained dark spots on the skin should consult with a dermatologist - he will only be able to distinguish hyperpigmentation from sun burn or tan spots and recommend effective treatment.
Causes of hyperpigmentation
Melanocytes, the special pigment cells of the skin, produce melanin - the pigment responsible for the color of skin, eyes and human hair. Any hormonal and physical changes and environmental factors can stimulate the excessive production of melanin cells. This imbalance also affects the property of melanocytes evenly distributed melanin in cells of the epidermis, which, in turn, leads to the appearance of dark spots on the skin where the melanin concentration is much higher. This state is called hyperpigmentation.
Factors affecting the excess skin pigmentation
Among the most common factors influencing the excess production of melanin, are:
- Hormonal changes: Hormonal changes in women during pregnancy or menopause can cause excessive production of melanin cells.
- Diet: Any changes in diet - including excessive use of iron and vitamin A deficiency, D and E - can affect the development of skin hyperpigmentation.
- Diseases: In some cases, the appearance of hyperpigmentation can be caused by certain diseases - including acne, Addison's disease, diseases of the abdominal cavity, hypothyroidism. Such diseases directly affects melanocyte stimulating hormone changes in the body.
- Environmental factors: the constant presence in the sun, sunscreen cosmetics neglect leads to permanent effects of ultraviolet radiation on the skin, which violates the normal mechanism of melanin.
- Cosmetics: Cosmetics, which include a significant amount of alcohol or mercury can cause hyperpigmentation.
- Medications: Some medications for the treatment of infertility
Infertility Treatment - What principles are priority
, Insomnia, high blood pressure, can cause hyperpigmentation as a side effect of the medication.
- Injuries: The various injuries, leading to inflammation of the epidermis, can cause hyperpigmentation - including insect bites, wounds, allergic reactions, burns.
The treatment of hyperpigmentation
- Creams and lotions: depending on the severity of the skin disease dermatologists usually recommended to use special creams or lotions containing green tea extract, retinol, hydroquinone, alfagidroksikisloty.
- Dermabrasion: Dermabrasion - removing skin area affected with excess pigmentation. The skin is frozen and then polished with the help of micro-crystals. Dermabrasion is considered one of the safest and most effective treatments for hyperpigmentation without any side effects.
- Chemical peels: the affected layer of skin is removed by applying special chemicals. Unaffected, healthy layer of skin comes to the surface, and skin tone thus aligned.
- Laser surgery: The procedure for treatment of hyperpigmentation by laser irradiation dermatologist appointed only after consultation with the patient and careful consideration of several factors, since laser surgery can have side effects. The affected area of the skin is irradiated with a laser; radiation energy destroys the melanin in the cells.
"Home" for the treatment of hyperpigmentation
Often the problem with excess pigmentation of the skin can be solved at home with the help of the so-called "popular" means. Note, however, that any such means only clarified the affected area of the skin, but can not change the mechanism of melanin. The time required for lightening skin area varies depending on the severity of the hyperpigmentation. However, traditional remedies in most cases safer than special clarifying cream sold in pharmacies.
- Rubbing the affected area of the skin of lemon juice and yogurt can reduce pigmentation over time.
- Rubbing the affected area of the skin crust of lemon with sugar granules on it for ten minutes every day will help even out skin tone, get rid of the darkened areas.
- Completely get rid of dark spots on the skin for a month to help the liquid vitamin E capsules, which must be rubbed into the damaged areas of the skin.
- Shea butter allows to solve a number of problems with the skin
The most common skin problems and their solutions
Which are caused by hyperpigmentation.
- Regular application of yogurt and honey on the affected area of the skin for half an hour every day lightens dark skin.
- Another lightening ingredient - gel based on Aloe
Aloe - its amazing healing properties
- Even out skin tone, you can use tomato pulp, which contains a variety of phytochemicals.
How to prevent hyperpigmentation?
The hormonal changes, pregnancy, disease, a variety of injuries can not be prevented, and therefore completely eliminate the risk of excessive skin pigmentation impossible. However, in other cases, to reduce the risk of hyperpigmentation will help compliance with a few simple rules.
Protect your skin from the sun: the appearance of hyperpigmentation caused by sunlight and harmful UV rays can be avoided by protecting your skin from the sun and not appearing in the sun during the peak period - from morning till noon. Always use a sunscreen with an SPF of cosmetics over 30, dealing with the skin for half an hour before going outdoors. Do not forget about the headgear, umbrellas, clothing with long sleeves, which will help hide your skin from harmful UV rays and avoid the appearance of hyperpigmentation.
- Avoid cosmetics, which includes alcohol and mercury. Choose natural moisturizing ingredients - olive oil, coconut milk, almond oil.
- Add in the diet of a sufficient amount of fresh fruits and vegetables rich in antioxidants
Antioxidants: the truth about the notorious benefits
, Vitamins and minerals - they will help your skin stay healthy and recover quickly from any damage.