Laxatives - it does not remove what is not needed - The mechanism of action of laxatives
July 16, 2009
- Laxatives - it does not remove it, it is not necessary
- The mechanism of action of laxatives
The mechanism of action of laxatives
All laxatives mechanism of action are divided into three groups:
- means for causing chemical irritation receptors (nerve endings) of the intestinal mucosa; these include herbal drugs (rhubarb root, buckthorn bark, fruits zhostera, senna leaves, etc.), castor oil, synthetic drugs (phenolphthalein, izafenin);
- means for causing mechanical irritation of nerve endings (receptors) of the intestinal mucosa (due to the large volume of liquefied feces) is saline laxatives (eg Epsom salt); Agar-agar has a laxative effect due to the fact that swelling in the intestine, it increases the amount of stool, it causes mechanical irritation receptors of the intestinal wall; There is also an osmotic laxative (sorbitol, xylitol and mannitol), which violate the ingestion of water absorption and thus help to increase the volume of the intestinal contents, and as a result - increased motor activity of the bowel;
- means to facilitate softening of stools and facilitate their advancement through the bowel - this various oils, such as petrolatum, almond, olive, and others.
Basically, most of laxatives retards absorption of water and salts in the intestine, thus distinguish drugs affecting mainly:
- locomotor activity of the large intestine (leaf senna, bisacodyl, etc.);
- on motor activity of the small bowel - this oil: castor oil, olive oil, etc .;
- all sections of the intestine (saline laxatives).
The nature of laxatives are divided as follows:
- laxative laxatives, causing the chair close to normal (kafiol, magnesia, mineral oil, and others.);
- laxatives, causing mushy or watery stools (drugs rhubarb, buckthorn, phenolphthalein, and others.);
- pronosnye causing violent motor activity of the intestine with liquid stool (saline laxatives).
In some cases, used laxatives
Purgative and laxative is prescribed for acute and chronic constipation. Saline (pronosnye) laxative for chronic constipation is not used, they are prescribed for acute constipation, when you need to prompt bowel movements (for example, food poisoning to remove poisons from the gastrointestinal tract), after taking some anthelmintics to accelerate their breeding from the body, since many anthelmintics have a toxic effect on the human body.
To combat flatulence (bloating), especially in the elderly, applied antiflatulents (extracts of chamomile flowers, fennel seeds
Dill: benefits and harms of fragrant spices
and other medicinal plants). The action of these agents is associated with a moderate stimulation of bowel movements and light, relieves spasms of the muscles of the intestine by the action.
With a view to easing the chair apply also candle containing sodium hydrogen carbonate, decomposing in the rectum to release carbon dioxide, which leads to a mechanical stretching of its wall and bowel.
Contraindications for use of laxatives
Laxatives are contraindicated in intestinal obstruction, acute abdomen syndrome (severe pain in the abdomen, where the patient needed surgical care), appendicitis
Appendicitis - when we must act immediately
and other inflammatory processes in the abdominal cavity, acute febrile states.
Laxatives should not be prescribed in spastic (as a result of intestinal muscle contraction and reducing its lumen), constipation, intestinal obstruction. It should also take into account the negative impact of enhanced motor activity of the intestine during pregnancy and the ability of some laxatives to pass into the milk of nursing mothers.
Overdose of laxatives
With an overdose of laxatives may appear diarrhea, vomiting, paroxysmal (due to spasm of the muscles of the intestine), abdominal pain
Abdominal pain: Types and Symptoms
. This is a common manifestation of an overdose of laxatives, some drugs have their own characteristics, their overdose can also manifest itself in different ways.
Laxatives not recommended for long, so as not to disrupt the function of the intestine. Prolonged use can appear diarrhea with metabolic disorders
Metabolism: The basis of life of all living things
, Dehydration, decreased function of intestinal enzymes, violation of motor activity of the colon, and so on.
Laxatives - one of the most common drugs, but to use them better still by prescription.
Pancreatitis - by itself does not appear - Risk Factors
June 18, 2009
- Pancreatitis - by itself does not appear
- Risk factors
Pancreatitis in itself does not appear, it may trigger as the diseases and disorders of the internal organs and excesses on the part of the man himself. For example, alcohol (even beer), drugs, smoking, and gallbladder disease (especially cholelithiasis) in 95-98% of cases the cause of pancreatitis.
Furthermore, provoke inflammation of the pancreas
Diabetes and pancreas - the things you need to know
- diseases of the duodenum (gastroduodenitis, peptic ulcer);
- taking certain drugs (paracetamol, antibiotics
Antibiotics - whether they will help you in the foreseeable future?
, Sulfonamides, etc.);
- infection (mumps (mumps), viral hepatitis B, C, et al.);
- metabolic disease
Metabolism: The basis of life of all living things
- allergic conditions;
- hormonal changes;
Sometimes pancreatitis can cause injury (bruised abdomen, complicated operations of the stomach and biliary tract).
First of all, severe pain, which increases after a meal and is located in the "pit" area, often extending to the left and right upper quadrant, and giving back. Perhaps aversion to fatty foods, earthy-gray color of the skin, dryness of the mouth. Pancreatitis is accompanied by diarrhea, belching, nausea, episodic vomiting the bile, flatulence, loss of appetite, weight loss.
Quite often joined to pancreatitis and gallbladder inflammation, peptic ulcer and other diseases of the abdominal cavity.
As a result, increasing the pressure in the ducts of the pancreas (eg, because the stones that cover the lumen), the reverse casting of enzymes in the gland, causing part of it, and then the whole iron becomes inflamed. This condition is called acute pancreatitis, it comes on suddenly, it is accompanied by severe pain, diarrhea, vomiting, fever.
Acute pancreatitis has the following form:
- Interstitial pancreatitis - acute swelling of the pancreas;
- hemorrhagic pancreatitis - bleeding in the tissue of the gland;
- acute pancreatic necrosis - iron with dense centers of decay;
- Acute holetsistopankreatit - a combination of acute cholecystitis and pancreatitis;
- purulent pancreatitis - iron melting pockets of pus.
In severe forms of acute pancreatitis - pancreatic necrosis - there is necrosis (death) of pancreatic tissue. Often the necrotic process extends to the fatty tissue surrounding the pancreas and other organs located in the retroperitoneal space. If activated pancreatic enzymes enter the abdominal cavity, they cause aseptic peritonitis pancreatogenic - an extremely dangerous condition that can cause death.
Sometimes spicy, but not finished the cure pancreatitis becomes chronic phase and is progressing sluggishly, inflammation continues to grow, but it does so slowly, the periods of exacerbations are replaced by remissions. The outcome of the disease - pancreatic tissue fibrosis or calcification, the development of diabetes
Diabetes - threatening and incurable disease
The forms of chronic pancreatitis:
- "Latent" or asymptomatic - for a long time, patients do not feel any change in state of health;
- "Pain" - show constant pain in the upper abdomen, increases during acute to severe;
- "Chronic recurrent" - is no aggravation of the complaint, with recidivism - characteristic pain;
- "Psevdoopuholevaya" - a very rare form that affects the head of the pancreas and increases its size due to the proliferation of fibrous tissue.
Reactive pancreatitis or dispankreatizm - an attack of acute pancreatitis in the aggravation of diseases of the stomach, duodenum, gall bladder or liver.
If you experience symptoms of pancreatitis - Do not play with your life, call your doctor! But remember, before coming spetsbrigady strictly forbidden to put to "acute abdomen" and to use a heating pad antispasmodics.