Steatosis - obesity, liver cells - Symptoms

October 10, 2014

  • Steatosis - obesity liver cells
  • Causes
  • Symptoms
  • Diagnostics
  • Treatment

 Symptoms of fatty liver

Symptoms of fatty liver

At the beginning of the development of steatosis in the majority of patients are asymptomatic. In the later stages, usually after a few years, the following symptoms appear:

  • Causeless tiredness, weakness, malaise
  • Weight loss and anorexia
  • Impaired concentration, confusion creation
  • Pain in the center or right side of the abdomen
  • Increase in liver
  • The appearance of spots on the skin, diskoloratsiya skin - usually on the skin of the armpit

In alcoholic fatty hepatosis symptoms may be exacerbated during periods of heavy drinking.

In severe cases of fatty liver cirrhosis flows, which are characteristic symptoms of fluid retention in the body, muscle atrophy, internal bleeding, jaundice, liver insufficiency.

  • Nonalcoholic fatty liver first degree may not cause any symptoms, but some patients complain of mild discomfort in the right upper abdomen. As the disease progresses, you may experience such symptoms as fatigue (severe fatigue that occurs after loads that previously the patient was well tolerated), severe pain in the liver, jaundice (yellow color of the skin and mucous membranes due to accumulation of bilirubin tissues), swelling of the legs.
  • Symptoms of alcoholic fatty liver. Starting from the second stage of development of this disorder, the patient may experience nonspecific symptoms such as poor appetite, abdominal pain Abdominal pain: Types and Symptoms  Abdominal pain: Types and Symptoms
 , Nausea and vomiting. Also, enlargement of the liver and possibly fever. Over time, the disease leads to a significant deterioration of the general health of the patient, which may indicate the development of serious complications.
  • Acute steatosis pregnant Steatosis pregnant - what is the danger?  Steatosis pregnant - what is the danger?
   usually appears in late pregnancy (more often - at 35 or 36 weeks of pregnancy), and causes symptoms such as loss of appetite, indigestion, abdominal pain, malaise and lethargy, jaundice, nausea, vomiting, excessive thirst. In some cases, patients with the disease symptoms such as confusion and changes in mental status.


Alcoholic liver steatosis

The reasons for the development of alcoholic fatty liver is to talk separately, because here everything is not as easy as it seems at first glance. Contrary to popular belief, alcohol abuse - a necessary but not sufficient condition for the development of the disease. Alcoholic fatty liver develops in only one out of five people who regularly abuse alcohol. The risk of FH, the higher and longer than in the large number of people consume alcohol. However, the increased concentration of fat in the liver (this is not necessarily steatosis) and often found in those that consume moderate amounts of alcohol (less than 10 g of pure alcohol per day).

Analysis of results of autopsies of people during his lifetime alcohol abuse, showed that pathological changes in the liver associated with alcoholic fatty gepatozomom, starting with those who daily consumed at least 40 mg of pure alcohol. The use of more than 80 mg of alcohol per day can lead to the development of the second and third stages of fatty liver. (For reference: 12 g of pure alcohol is around 340 grams of beer, 140 g of wine and liquor 40 g).

Of all the organs the liver takes the most active part in the processing of alcohol. In chronic alcohol abuse occurs oxidative stress How to beat stress? Create an oasis  How to beat stress? Create an oasis
 Which leads to necrosis of hepatocytes - cells, which constitute about 70% of the total liver mass. This process contributes to the shortage of antioxidants Antioxidants: the truth about the notorious benefits  Antioxidants: the truth about the notorious benefits
 Which is usually observed in alcoholism. Initially, this may lead to the fact that the liver is not able to properly process the fat and liver tissue gradually becomes inflamed and formation of connective tissue.

It is believed that the likelihood of developing fatty liver in people who abuse alcohol, especially great if they also suffer from obesity, if they have violations such as insulin resistance and diabetes, if their diet lacks vitamins and minerals.

Omeprazole - ulcer help - Medications - proton pump inhibitors

April 11, 2010

  • Omeprazole - ulcer help
  • Medications - proton pump inhibitors

Medications - proton pump inhibitors

The acidity of the stomach depends on the presence of hydrochloric acid. Hydrochloric acid stands out (parietal) cells of the gastric mucosa. This process is as follows: from gastric parietal cells released potassium chloride (KCl), which dissolves in the lumen of the stomach on the ions K + and Cl-. K + ions are then recycled back to the cell in exchange for isolated therefrom hydrogen ions H +. Because hydrogen ions H + and Cl- chlorine produced hydrochloric acid (HCl). The formation of protons for the oppositely directed transport of K + and H + ions accelerated by the enzyme ATPase, which is known as proton pump (pump).

Medications proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) inhibit the action of ATPase. They are weak bases (alkalescent reaction), and are accumulated in the acidic environment of the parietal cells in the vicinity of the proton pump. Here is their conversion to the active form - tetracyclic sulfenamide, which inhibits the action of ATPase. To activate these drugs require an acidic environment.

Proton pump inhibitors are the most effective drugs that suppress the excessive production of acid in the stomach. Representatives of this class of drugs are omeprazole, esomeprazole, lansoprazole, pantoprazole and rabeprazole.

 Medications - proton pump inhibitors | Omeprazole - ulcer help

The mechanism of action of omeprazole

Omeprazole is a proton pump inhibitor, drugs that have anti-ulcer effect. It inhibits the action of ATPase (proton pump) in gastric parietal cells, thereby blocking the final stage of hydrochloric acid (HCl) of H + ions and Cl. This leads to a reduction of gastric acid secretion. After a single oral dose of omeprazole effect occurs within the first hour and lasts for days, the maximum effect is achieved in 2 hours. After discontinuation secretory activity is fully restored in 3-5 days.

In addition, omeprazole has a bactericidal effect (kills) in the pathogen Helicobacter pylori (this type of bacteria is the main "culprit" of peptic ulcer disease) by reducing the acidity of gastric contents, which creates unfavorable conditions for the life of these bacteria. Helicobacter pylori is therefore shifted to the lower parts of the stomach, where the acidity is reduced not so much. This movement makes it more effective antibiotic therapy aimed at the destruction of Helicobacter pylori.

When administered omeprazole rapidly and almost completely absorbed into the blood, where it comes in the parietal cells of the stomach. Then it decomposes in the liver and excreted in the urine and feces.

 Medications - proton pump inhibitors | Omeprazole - ulcer help

Indications and contraindications for use

Omeprazole is shown in the following diseases:

  • gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer;
  • Gastro-oesophageal reflux (throwing of stomach contents into the esophagus), reflux esophagitis (inflammation of the esophageal mucosa against the background of gastro-esophageal reflux disease);
  • digestive problems associated with gastric hyperacidity;
  • irritation and erosive and ulcerative lesions of the gastric mucosa caused by NSAIDs (eg, aspirin);
  • duodenal ulcer and stomach, including those caused by Helicobacter pylori (in the complex therapy);
  • erosions of the gastric mucosa, developing in HIV-infected patients;
  • erosive and ulcerative changes in the upper gastrointestinal tract develop in patients with cirrhosis of the liver;
  • ulcerative processes in the stomach, developed on the background of other diseases and stress.

Contraindications Omeprazole is an idiosyncrasy of the drug, infancy, pregnancy and breastfeeding Breast-feeding: feed - and no nails!  Breast-feeding: feed - and no nails!

 Medications - proton pump inhibitors | Omeprazole - ulcer help

Side effects

Side effects when taking omeprazole are usually mild and reversible:

  • the part of the digestive system: nausea, diarrhea or constipation, dry mouth, abdominal pain Abdominal pain: Types and Symptoms  Abdominal pain: Types and Symptoms
 , Transient abnormal liver function;
  • Central nervous system: headache, dizziness Dizziness - if the ground is slipping from under his feet  Dizziness - if the ground is slipping from under his feet
 , Agitation, drowsiness or insomnia, sensory disturbances, depressed mood (depression), hallucinations (patients see, hear or feel something that really is not);
  • on the part of the musculoskeletal system: muscle weakness, pain in muscles and joints;
  • From hemopoiesis system: decrease in the number of white blood cells (low immunity) and platelets (increased bleeding);
  • an allergic reaction: hives, itching;
  • Other side effects include blurred vision, swelling, sweating, fever, gynecomastia Gynecomastia - known since ancient times  Gynecomastia - known since ancient times
   (breast enlargement in men).

Overdose omeprazole increases all the side effects of the drug.

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  • omeprazole