The functioning of the body depends entirely on the level of hormones. Not the last role is played by hormones. In the female body, in addition to the female sex hormones - estrogen, produced and male sex hormones - androgens, which are precursors of estrogens. The ratio of those and other hormones not only affect the appearance of a woman and her beauty, but also responsible for health, fertility and childbearing. The excess of male hormones known as hyperandrogenism, and target organs that are affected by androgens are the sebaceous and sweat glands, ovaries, skin and hair.
Clinical forms of hyperandrogenism
The excess of male hormones may be due to various pathological conditions. These include:
- hyperplasia and adrenal gland tumor;
- sclerocystic ovaries;
- masculinizing (omuzhestvlyayuschie) ovarian tumors;
- Cushing's disease;
Tuberculosis - a full recovery is not guaranteed
There are two forms of adrenal hyperandrogenism:
- Pubertal form of adrenogenital syndrome
In this form of the increased synthesis of male hormones begins with the onset of puberty
Puberty child - stages of a complex path
When activated by the function of the adrenal hormone. The girl has been rapid growth, they are higher than their peers in the constitution also says the effect of androgens: broad shoulders, tapered hips, thighs and buttocks to no body fat, several underdeveloped breasts. These girls are willing to engage in sports that require endurance and strength (volleyball, rowing, cycling). The main symptom is hypertrichosis, which is normally not expressed much: single rod hair above the upper lip, cheeks, around the nipples, body hair midline of the abdomen, thigh, leg and crotch. Characterized by multiple acne, oily and porous skin of the face, back and chest. The first menstruation occurs in 14-16 years, and irregular menses themselves.
- Postpubertatnom form of adrenogenital syndrome
It manifested in young women complaining of irregular menstruation scarce, no pregnancies, hypertrichosis. Often, these patients had spontaneous abortion in the early period (7-10 weeks). When collecting history turns out that soon after menarche was delayed menstruation, and sexual excess body hair was of the character. The excess of male hormones violates the cyclic processes in the ovaries, which is manifested suppression of growth and maturation of follicles (amenorrhea occurs) and anovulation.
The disease develops as a result of the secondary stimulation of the adrenal hormones of the pituitary gland. As a result, increases in the adrenal gland is not only the formation of androgens and glucocorticoids. Increased production of the latter leads to the development of hyperglycemia (secondary diabetes), muscle atrophy, striae, and the appearance of osteoporosis. Fat metabolism is also disturbed, resulting in excessive deposition of fat in the upper body, in the stomach and face. It should be noted that obesity does not extend to the extremities, lumbar and gluteal region. Characterized by amenorrhea, hypertrichosis and atrophy of the mammary glands.
Sclerocystic ovarian syndrome
This syndrome is also called Stein-Leventhal syndrome. The disease is characterized by amenorrhea
The absence of menstruation (amenorrhea) - ambiguous symptom
of varying duration, hypertrichosis, obesity, infertility and polycystic ovaries-changed. Sometimes there are long acyclic bleeding after periods of amenorrhea. The disease often begins with menstrual disorders by type hypomenstrual syndrome
Scarce or monthly hypomenstrual syndrome - a call to action
with a gradual transition to amenorrhea.
The excess of male sex hormones of ovarian origin may be caused by tumors (adrenoblastoma and others). Adrenoblastomy rare in patients under the age of 15 years and after 40 years. Tumor development is accompanied by the disappearance of the female phenotype, and then there are properties that are typical of men. Monthly become rare and scarce, then developed amenorrhea. Atrophy breast and uterine cancer, infertility appears. Change the contours of the body, due to a decrease in fat deposits, it coarsens his voice manifest hypertrichosis. Often there is male-pattern baldness, libido decreases and disappears.