In the body of each woman monthly repeated changes that affect almost every system, but they are most pronounced in the reproductive area. The external manifestation of these changes is menstruating. A distinctive feature is its two-phase cycle in nature. The second phase of the menstrual cycle is directly related to the process of formation of the corpus luteum in the ovary, in connection with which it is called luteal. The changes that occur during this phase, promote the training of the female body to the carrying of a pregnancy.
The formation of the corpus luteum after ovulation
Due to the existence of a complex neurohumoral regulatory system in the uterus and the ovaries there are processes to ensure that the normal state of the female reproductive system and its entire body as a whole. During the first or follicular phase of a gradual growth and maturation of the follicular unit and egg.
After ovulation has occurred to create the most favorable conditions for mature oocyte fertilization, its implantation in the uterine wall and the development of the ovum. That is all this important process takes place during the second phase of the cycle.
In its second phase duration always takes a fixed number of days (14 days) and does not change throughout the entire cycle.
Preceding the beginning of this phase of the process of ovulation. With the help of laboratory tests, it was found that just a day before ovulation (between 24 and 36 hours) there is a change in hormonal levels - in the blood increases the content of the hormone estradiol, and he, in turn, causes a sharp increase in the secretion of the central luteinizing hormone, or LH, which produced in the pituitary gland. These hormones help to break out of the follicle and egg him. Then we can say that begins the second phase or stage of development of the corpus luteum. The main hormone of the second phase of the menstrual cycle is the hormone LH.
Thus, the period beginning ovulation
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and ending the next menstruation is called the luteal phase or second. At this time, the formation of new endocrine gland or corpus luteum. This education can be summarized as follows:
- yellow body is hormonally active and produces a specific hormone progesterone. Furthermore progesterone synthesis occurs estrogens and androgens. Maximum development of the corpus luteum is considered to be 20-22 days of the menstrual cycle
The days of the menstrual cycle: Four phases
, When the blood is determined by the high content of sex hormones. After that, the hormone levels begin to decline, and against the backdrop of a significant drop in the female body saturation of sex hormones (such as estrogen) begins menstruation
- corpus luteum formation is transient and operates only during 14 days, regardless of the total duration of a woman's menstrual cycle
The regression of the corpus luteum occurs when a woman in a given cycle does not become pregnant. It is in the second phase to create optimal conditions for the development of the embryo as a synthesized hormone progesterone
Progesterone - norm and pathology
It is the "protector" of pregnancy. It inhibits uterine contractility, and is responsible for the preparation for the upcoming breast feeding baby
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breasts (alveoli development occurs in the glands).
What happens in the uterus during this period
Luteal phase characteristic changes not only in the ovaries, but also in other organs of the reproductive system. The uterus is exposed mucous secretory transformations that are needed in order to successfully implant occurred. The most prominent of these processes are in the range from 20 to 22 day (unless the regular cycle in women and it lasts about 28 days), when the activity of secretory transformation becomes maximum.
Changes are subject to not only the cellular elements, but also vascular component (arteries become sharply crimped and form a kind of "tangles" that can be found throughout the whole of the functional layer of the endometrium). If the corpus luteum begins to regress in the absence of pregnancy, the endometrium will observe the process of violation of trophic and prevalence of degenerative processes. A manifestation of these changes is the beginning of a woman's menstrual period.
If the second phase of the cycle the woman is inferior, there is a risk of a variety of pathological conditions.
There are violations of menstrual function, suffer reproductive function (developing problems associated with carrying a pregnancy). This state is called the luteal phase deficiency, or NLF. It is sure to be carried out hormonal correction of violations. Given that the main hormone progesterone is the second phase, the sound will be the appointment of hormonal agents from the group of progestogen hormones. Developed natural progesterone analogues that restore hormonal balance and compensate for progesterone deficiency.
The most widely used drug djufaston which is determined depending on the severity of disorders in the dose of 10 mg to 30 mg in knocking. The drug has good tolerability, the lack of significant side effects and achieves good positive clinical results. Against the background of the therapy djufaston pregnancy can occur, but the medication should not be stopped. Carrying out maintenance of hormone therapy during the first trimester makes it possible to make pregnancy by filling the required level of the hormone progesterone. According to the testimony progestin therapy during pregnancy can be carried out up to and including the second trimester.
- the phase of the menstrual cycle