Hemodialysis: artificial kidney - Indications and contraindications

February 20th, 2011

  • Hemodialysis: artificial kidney
  • Indications and contraindications

What is hemodialysis

Haemodialysis - the method of release of blood from the low and medium weight material by means of an artificial kidney. Hemodialysis - basic form of in vivo blood purification using various kinds of dialysis. Dialysis is a method of separating called colloids (substances which do not crystallize and do not pass through the membrane of plant and animal origin, such as proteins) from the truly dissolved substances. Dialysis can be carried out by washing the peritoneum (the inner membrane lining the abdominal cavity - peritoneal dialysis), or intestinal mucosa brine (intestinal dialysis). The most efficient method of dialysis is hemodialysis using an artificial kidney machine. Thus blood is cleared from the dissolved substances of toxic and all plasma proteins remain in place.

Due to dialysis Dialysis - maintains normal body  Dialysis - maintains normal body
   in some cases, successfully carried out the treatment of acute and chronic renal failure, acute poisoning. It was found that during the year by 1 million. 150 population required hemodialysis for treatment of patients with acute renal failure and hemodialysis for 20-25 treatment of poisoning. The number of patients with chronic renal failure the average is 50 per 1 million. Per year. Since every patient with chronic renal failure require hemodialysis about 100 years, during the year of 5000 will need about 1 million. People. This requires the organization of a large number of hemodialysis centers.

 Indications and contraindications | Hemodialysis: artificial kidney

Indications and contraindications for hemodialysis

Indications for dialysis in acute and chronic renal failure are determined by the underlying disease. The most common acute renal failure requiring hemodialysis, developed for different types of shock (against the backdrop of injuries, allergic reactions, severe infections), poisoning toxins (inorganic and organic - animal and vegetable origin) drugs. Acute renal failure can occur when infectious diseases accompanied by renal disease and blood vessels, acute glomerulonephritis (infectious and allergic diseases of the kidneys), acute pyelonephritis Pyelonephritis - kidney disease  Pyelonephritis - kidney disease
   (inflammation of the kidneys), and sometimes with blockage (obstruction) of the urinary tract (eg stones, tumors). In cases of acute renal failure after single or multiple hemodialyses usually comes recovery of kidney function and the patient's recovery.

In acute poisoning dialysis removes toxins from the body. But the most common indication for hemodialysis is the final stage of chronic renal failure in which toxic metabolic products are not excreted by the kidney, has completely lost its function, and accumulate in the body and poison it.

Contraindications for dialysis are bleeding in the brain, not the bleeding stopped, significantly expressed cardiovascular insufficiency.

 Indications and contraindications | Hemodialysis: artificial kidney

Methods hemodialysis

For hemodialysis uses artificial kidney machines. Connecting the patient with the device can be veno-venous (most) and arteriovenous. When venovenous hemodialysis taken from a large vein using a catheter and the blood pump, it is pumped to the dialyzer where it passes through a special system in which the solution is contacted with dializuruyuschim. Due to the difference in the solution concentrations and blood substance from a patient's blood pass into the dialysis solution. The purified blood is returned to another vein in the patient's limb.

When arteriovenous hemodialysis, blood is taken from a peripheral artery and returned into a peripheral vein. In chronic renal failure a week doing three hemodialysis, each of which lasts for 4-5 hours. The use of dialysis can significantly increase the length of life of patients with chronic renal failure Chronic renal failure - what to do and how to be?  Chronic renal failure - what to do and how to be?
 . Methods hemodialysis so well designed that with proper equipment hemodialysis can be performed at home.

 Indications and contraindications | Hemodialysis: artificial kidney

Complications of hemodialysis

Technical complications of hemodialysis are very rare and quickly eliminated. Major complications depends on the individual patient and the course of his illness. For hemodialysis sometimes during the session observed headache, jerking, confusion. This occurs due to the rapid release of blood from metabolic products, while the cerebrospinal fluid is released from these materials slowly - developing the so-called syndrome of imbalance. In some cases, a thrombosis Thrombosis - the cause of heart attack and stroke  Thrombosis - the cause of heart attack and stroke
   shunt, inflammation of the vein wall, festering wounds.

Hemodialysis - is an indispensable tool to combat renal impairment and intoxication.

Galina Romanenko

Article Tags:
  • Treatment of kidney

Treatment of kidney stones - may be conservative or operative - How To Remove

April 19th, 2014

  • Treatment of kidney stones - may be conservative or operative
  • How to delete

 how to remove kidney stones

How to remove kidney stones

There are various methods for removing kidney stones. They can be divided into two major groups: non-surgical and operating. Non-surgical removal of kidney stones, in turn, can be instrumental and endoscopic. Instrumental rock removal is carried out in the following ways:

  • Ureteral catheter in order to change the position of stone, which will display it later from the kidney; using catheter rock poured mineral oil - it makes it more slippery and able to move up the urinary tract;
  • removing the stone using a catheter with an inflatable rubber Durmashkin balloon on the end; the catheter is fed to the stone, extend the ureter using an inflatable balloon that promotes discharge stone;
  • removing the stone using a Zeiss loop; Stone capture loops of cord yarn strong and recovered from the urinary tract;
  • removing the stone using a wire Dormia.

Instrumental methods of removal of kidney stones are not safe because they can cause injury or even rupture the walls of the ureter. They are used only to remove small stones.


Endoscopic removal of kidney stones

Endoscopic removal of kidney stones is the most modern, efficient and secure. It is carried out using modern endoscopic equipment and nephroscope uretropieloskopov under local or general anesthesia.

With nephroscope held removal of stone from the renal pelvis or upper ureter. To do this, conducted a percutaneous puncture of the kidney. This way you can remove large stones and staghorn kidney stones Kidney stones: identify and treat  Kidney stones: identify and treat
 The treatment of which is difficult in other ways.

With uretropieloskopa carry out removal of the stone from the middle or lower third of the urinary tract through the ureter without breaking the skin.


Removal of kidney stones with ultrasound

This procedure is called percutaneous ultrasonic lithotripsy. In carrying out its first skin puncture made in the lumbar region, and then inserted into the renal pelvis of the endoscope equipped with the ultrasonic lithotriptor, through which stone is destroyed, and subsequently withdrawn from the urinary tract. Held removal of stones with ultrasound at large and staghorn

In most cases the removal of kidney stones with ultrasound is performed when the patients in the diagnostic process revealed single large stones.


Removal of kidney stones by laser

Laser lithotripsy is performed using access through the urethra by means of an endoscope. Suitable Holmium laser, with which to crush stones of any size located both in the kidney and ureter.


Operational methods for the removal of kidney stones

Surgical treatment is often required for patients suffering from kidney disease. There are stones that can not be removed in any other way other than surgery. The operation is performed when the stone causes pain and violation of the outflow of urine, creating a threat to the human kidney.

Sometimes, along with the stone must be removed and the kidney (nephrectomy). But doctors are still trying to save the kidney, so the operation carried out organ - pyelolithotomy, nephrolithotomy, nephrectomy. Which type of surgery should be done in a particular case, the doctor decides, as the size, shape and location of kidney stones are extremely varied. The most common operation is pyelolithotomy - removal of stone from the pelvis through its dissection.

Than to treat kidney stones can only say urologist after a comprehensive examination of the patient. In any case, the appearance of back pain Low back pain: the spine signals  Low back pain: the spine signals
   better immediately seek medical help.

Galina Romanenko

Article Tags:
  • stones in the kidneys