- Diseases of the nervous system - the basic classification
Types of diseases
The nervous system integrates the activities of all organs and systems of the body. It consists of the central nervous system, which includes the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nervous system, which includes extending from the brain and spinal cord nerves. Nerve endings suited to each area of the body, providing its locomotor activity and sensitivity. There are also department innervating the internal organs and the cardiovascular system, it is the vegetative (autonomic) nervous system.
Lesions at different levels and parts of the nervous system caused by many reasons: vascular disorders, infections, exposure to toxins, trauma, tumors, cooling and so on. In recent years, the role of vascular diseases and injuries. The main groups of diseases of the nervous system related diseases, infectious diseases, inherited disease, a chronic, progressive disease of the nervous system, tumors of the brain and spinal cord injuries, diseases of the peripheral and autonomic nervous system, functional diseases of the nervous system.
These diseases are becoming more social value, as is often the cause of death and disability in the population. These include acute cerebrovascular accident (stroke) and chronic cerebrovascular insufficiency, leading to dramatic changes in the brain. There are these diseases on the background of atherosclerosis, hypertension and so on.
The main signs of stroke are rapid, often sudden onset, headache, nausea, vomiting, abnormal sensitivity and motor activity.
Infectious diseases of the nervous system can be caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites. Most often, while the brain is affected, at least - the spinal and peripheral nervous system. The most common primary viral encephalitis (eg, tick). The development of encephalitis can be complicated by a number of diseases such as syphilis
Syphilis - punishment of Venus
, Influenza, malaria, measles
Measles in children - may cause serious complications
and so on.
For all neuroinfections characterized by the appearance on the background of the high temperature of brain (headache, nausea, vomiting, abnormal sensitivity and motor activity) and focal (local) lesions of the nervous system.
A chronic, progressive disease of the nervous system
A chronic, progressive disease of the nervous system - is multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, and some other diseases. Their causes are not fully understood, it's probably hereditary feature of the structure of the nervous system in conjunction with a variety of effects (infections, metabolic disturbances, intoxication, etc.). These factors lead to decreased viability of a particular system.
Common features of these diseases are gradual onset (usually in middle or old age), systematic destruction (for example, all of the neuromuscular apparatus) and long for a gradual increase in signs of disease.
They were taken on the chromosome (changes in chromosomes, that is, at the cellular level) and genomic (changes in genes - carriers of heredity). The most common chromosomal disorder - Down Syndrome. The genomic diseases are divided into shape with a primary lesion of the neuromuscular and nervous systems. For persons suffering from a chromosomal disease characterized by symptoms of dementia, infantilism, and various endocrine disorders, for sufferers of genomic disease - movement disorders.
Traumatic injuries of the nervous system
Traumatic injuries of the nervous system - a concussion, contusion and compression of the brain, the effects of trauma brain and spinal cord - in the form of encephalopathy, and so on. Concussion manifested disorders of consciousness, headache, nausea, vomiting, memory disorders
Memory Disorders - aggravation as dangerous as the weakening
. If this brain injury, then to describe the symptoms join local sensory disturbances and motor activity.
Peripheral nervous system diseases
Diseases of the peripheral nervous system are common. This may be sciatica (inflammation of the nerve roots, that is, where they exit the spinal cord), plexitis (inflammation of the nerve plexus), neuritis
Neuritis - nerve damage
(inflammation of the peripheral nerves), polyneuritis (inflammation of multiple nerves). The most common form of the disease - sciatica. It may occur against the background of metabolic disorders of the spine (osteoarthritis), infection, intoxication, cooling injury, and so on. Disease manifested by severe pain in the lumbosacral region, disorders of sensitivity and paresis (temporary immobilization) of individual muscles.
Lesions of the autonomic nervous system
Lesions of the autonomic nervous system can develop with the joint infection, trauma, tumors, vascular disorders. The most common syndromes (combination of attributes) - vegetative-vascular dystonia, migraine. For diseases of the autonomic nervous system characterized by cyclical trends and the prevalence of the common symptoms of the disease. So, for the vegetative-vascular dystonia characterized by spasm of the blood vessels of the brain, heart palpitations, dizziness, and so on.
Diseases of the nervous system - it is always serious, they need to be treated for a long time, observing all the prescribing physician.