Neuritis - nerve damage

May 30, 2010

 Brain and spinal cord control the operation of all organs via peripheral nerves. These nerve fibers are damaged by various factors, such a state is called neuritis. It is accompanied by various disorders of movement and sensation in the area, which are innervated by the damaged nerve. It is a kind of polyneuritis - symmetrical defeat several peripheral nerve trunks.

 Neuritis - nerve damage


Depending on the nature of the factors that lead to nerve injury, neuritis, divided into:

  • Inflammatory. They develop on the background of a viral, bacterial infection less likely. For example, neuritis may complicate measles Measles in children - may cause serious complications  Measles in children - may cause serious complications
 , Influenza, herpes, malaria.
  • Toxic. The nerve fibers are damaged by the action of toxic substances such as alcohol, mercury, lead, manganese, arsenic and thallium. Under certain conditions (diabetes, liver or kidney disease) in the body accumulate such products of metabolism Metabolism: The basis of life of all living things  Metabolism: The basis of life of all living things
 That promote neurite outgrowth.
  • Traumatic. They occur with direct nerve damage by external factors. This occurs during operations, strikes, wounds, fractures in the area of ​​the passage of the nerve trunk. This group is compression of nerves by nearby structures, such as muscles or ligaments. Such states are called tunnel neuropathies. Predisposing factor is the passage of the nerve fibers in the narrow bone or muscle-ligamentous channels. Spinal roots (the nerves that extend from the spinal cord) may be squeezed herniated discs or bony growths - osteophytes.
  • Allergic which develop hypersensitivity of the immune system to a variety of allergens.

Hypothermia is also important in the development of the disease. In diseases of the connective tissue and the development of atherosclerosis neuritis associated with damage to the blood vessels and nerves malnutrition.

 Neuritis - nerve damage


Signs of any nerve depend on which fibers (motor, sensory and autonomic) includes in its composition. In most cases, the first signs of neuritis are pain and numbness in the areas that are innervated by nerve damage.

Movement disorders manifest paresis (weakening movement) or paralysis (complete absence of voluntary movements) of individual muscles and their groups. After a while, the last atrophy. Fall or significantly weaken certain reflexes.

With the defeat of vegetative fibers in certain areas of the body there is cyanosis (a condition in which the skin becomes bluish hue). There are local sweating and swelling at these same sites hair fall out.

Depending on which areas of certain nerves innervate differ signs of damage:

  • Unilateral reduction of smell characteristic of the olfactory nerve neuritis;
  • Reduced visual acuity associated with damage to the optic nerve;
  • The omission of the century, which is accompanied by double vision and restriction of movements of the eyeball upwards, medially and slightly down, a sign of damage to the oculomotor nerve;
  • Difficulty of the eyeball movement is also characteristic of damaged nerve discharge;
  • Neuritis of the facial nerve paresis or paralysis manifested facial muscles of one side of the face;
  • Violations of speech and swallowing are characteristic lesions of the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves;
  • Neuritis of the median nerve disorders accompanied by bending the wrist and the first three fingers and change the sensitivity on the part of the palm, which is closer to the radius;
  • With the defeat of the ulnar nerve hampered flexion of the fifth, fourth and third partial fingers, impaired sensitivity to its back surface and the ulnar half of the palm. Because atrophy intercostals muscles hand takes the form of "claws";
  • If it affects the radial nerve violated extension of the hand and fingers, and the sensitivity of the radial half of the dorsum of the hand;
  • Difficulties in hip flexion and extension of the knee lower leg - a sign of damage to the femoral nerve;
  • For neuritis of sciatic nerve characterized by the appearance of pain that occur on the back of the thigh and the posterolateral surface of the tibia, disorders of sensation in the foot and lower leg. Weakness of the muscles responsible for flexion and extension of the foot, is another sign of this neuritis.

 Neuritis - nerve damage


The choice of treatment depends on the cause of the disease and the level of destruction of the nerve trunk. It is necessary to relieve pain and restore function of the affected nerve.

If neuritis caused by bacteria, antibiotics are appointed or sulfa drugs. When nerve disease virus used interferon and γ-globulins. In violation of the blood supply to the nerve fibers will be needed tools that dilates blood vessels (aminophylline, papaverine). For all types of neuritis necessarily appointed vitamins from group B.

In the acute period of traumatic neuritis need to immobilize (immobilized) limb. At the same time you need to take painkillers and anti-inflammatory drugs (eg, indomethacin, brufen). Two weeks after the onset of the disease are appointed anticholinesterase drugs (Neostigmine), biogenic stimulators (lidasa).

Physical therapy - an important component of the treatment of neuritis. In order to accelerate the recovery of the nerve and relieve the pain, prescribed electrophoresis of novocaine Novocaine - why it is so popular in medicine?  Novocaine - why it is so popular in medicine?
 , Dipyrone, lidazy Lidaza - successfully struggling with problems  Lidaza - successfully struggling with problems
 , Pulse currents, UHF. If the nerve is broken for a long time, it is recommended to neostigmine electrophoresis, mud and paraffin baths, electrical stimulation of certain muscles pulse currents. You also need a massage and physiotherapy. All of these procedures increase blood flow of damaged nerve fibers, accelerate the metabolism in the surrounding tissues and promote more rapid nerve impulse.

Traumatic neuritis, and infections respond well to treatment, especially in young patients. People elderly recovery is slower.

 Neuritis - nerve damage

How is peripheral nerve

Signs of individual nerve trunks were first described in the 16th century, but for a long time it was thought that the inflammatory disease in the peripheral nerves can not be, because they are no blood vessels. It was only in the mid-19th century, it was first described in inflammatory diseases of the nerves, which marked the beginning of the study of all forms of neuritis.

The peripheral nervous system is formed by the nerves extending from the spinal cord and brain (cranial and spinal) nerve knots (ganglia), which houses the nerve cells (neurons), and it is difficult arranged receptor system (ramifications of the sensory nerves).

Peripheral nerve consists of processes (axons) motor, sensory and autonomic nerve cells, covered with a special myelin sheath that insulates each fiber and allows nerve impulses to freely pass in the right direction. Each fiber, bundles of nerve fibers and connective tissue generally covered with a shell, inside of which are the blood vessels that feed the nerve.

All peripheral nerves are divided into spinal nerves (have mixed, autonomic, motor and sensory fibers extend from the spinal cord) and traumatic brain that serve mainly the sense organs and muscles of the head. The only exception is the vagus nerve, which caters to the digestive organs, the heart and of the lungs. Some of the cranial nerves such as the optic nerves to the eye, comprise only sensitive fibers.

The peripheral nervous system has two main divisions: the somatic nervous system (transmits signals from the sensory organs to the central nervous system - CNS and signals about the necessary movements of the central nervous system to the muscles), which is under the conscious control of man, and the autonomic system under his unconscious control and provides services to internal organs and circulatory system. The autonomic system is represented only motor nerves, the spinal cord to execute commands.

Alexander Chernov

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