- Polyneuropathy - peripheral nerve
Onset of the disease usually gradual. In some cases, it begins with fever, neurological symptoms but often develop on the background of the external well-being. Within a few days or weeks the patient appear and grow symmetric paresis muscles distant parts of the limbs down their tone and atrophy (decrease in volume), with the reduction or extinction of tendon reflexes (short muscle contraction in response to the rapid expansion or irritation of the tendon muscle). The degree of movement disorders may be different - from mild paresis to paralysis. Sometimes develop persistent muscle contractures (muscle reduction) even in the early stages of the disease.
Often the development of movement disorders precede various sensory disturbances of peripheral type of paresthesia (pins and needles), pain along the nerve trunks, reducing (or, on the contrary, increase) the sensitivity. Sensitivity disorders have a characteristic distal spread in the form of "socks" and "gloves."
In some cases, in the hands and feet are marked different trophic and vegetative disorders as dryness, thinning and peeling of the skin, excessive sweating in the field, brittle nails, swelling of the skin and cracking on her fingertips. Sometimes these symptoms predominate and then talk about autonomic polyneuropathy.
Current polyneuropathy characterized by considerable diversity. In most cases, since the end of the second or third week of the disease is slow regression of paresis, starting with the departments involved in the latter.
Restoring sensitivity usually occurs earlier and faster. Significantly longer remain atrophy (reduction in the amount of muscle) and autonomic disorders. The duration of the recovery period is sometimes delayed up to six months and more. Sometimes the recovery is incomplete, remain persistent residual effects and contraction more pronounced in the distal extremities, leading to disability.
Probably and relapsing course with recurring exacerbations and increase of signs of disease.
Diagnosis is based on characteristic symptoms of the disease prior to their causes of disease and special studies. Held electromyography, through which investigated the electrophysiological characteristics of the muscle, the velocity of propagation of excitation of motor and sensory fibers. Research was also conducted of tendon reflexes.
Treatment of polyneuropathy must be complex. Because the disease is often accompanied by autoimmune processes, as soon as possible appoint glucocorticoid medications (eg, prednisone), and drugs that suppress the immune processes. At the same time prescribe potassium, protein diet, high doses of B vitamins
B vitamins: the body useful helpers
, Vitamin C, antihistamines (tavegil, suprastin and others), as well as drugs that improve neuromuscular conduction (eg proserine). At the same time appoint detoxication therapy - the introduction of large amounts of fluid in order to maximize removal of toxins from the blood. To the same end, a blood purification method hemosorption and plasmapheresis.
Specificity polyneuropathy treatment always depends on the cause of the neurological disorder.
- Polyneuropathy caused by excessive vitamin B6
Vitamin B6: the basic functions and sources
: Disappearance of symptoms of polyneuropathy after the normalization of vitamin B6.
- Polyneuropathy caused by diabetes: continuous monitoring of blood sugar levels
Blood sugar - a very important indicator
may slow the development of neurological disorders and alleviate the symptoms of polyneuropathy.
- Multiple myeloma, liver or kidney dysfunction: successful treatment of the underlying disease leads to recovery polyneuropathy.
- Cancer: surgical removal of the tumor is necessary to eliminate the pressure on the nerve, and the suppression of the symptoms of polyneuropathy.
- Hypothyroidism: treatment of hormonal preparations
- Autoimmune disorders: major treatments such species polyneuropathy - plasmapheresis (filtration of blood), immune globulin intravenous corticosteroids, immunosuppressants (medications that suppress the immune system).
If the root cause of polyneuropathy, can not be repaired, the main purpose of treating a neurological disorder becomes a pain relief and solving the problems associated with muscle weakness.
In such cases, it helps to standard methods of physiotherapy and taking certain drugs to facilitate cause nerve damage pain. Among these drugs - an antidepressant amitriptyline, anticonvulsants gabapentin, lidocaine (anesthetic for external use).
At all stages of rehabilitation treatment are widely used physiotherapy treatments.
In most cases, when properly cured timely treatment polyneuropathy.
Guillain Barre syndrome
Guillain-Barre syndrome, acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy - type of polyneuropathy, causes episodes of muscle weakness, the duration of which is usually eight weeks or less.
- Autoimmunity damages the myelin sheath of nerves
- Normally, muscle weakness observed in both feet, then spreads to other parts of the body
- To confirm the diagnosis used electromyography and nerve conduction studies, and for the treatment of - plasmapheresis (blood filtering) and an injection of immune globulin
The cause of acute inflammatory polyneuropathy - an autoimmune reaction: immune system produces antibodies that damage the myelin sheath of nerves. Eighty percent of all cases of Guillain-Barre syndrome polyneuropathy the first symptoms appear within a few days or weeks after a viral infection, surgery or vaccination - that is, the states, anyway affecting the activity of the immune system.
The development of this type of polyneuropathy begins with the appearance of characteristic symptoms in the legs and gradually spreads to other parts of the body - it may be muscle weakness, tingling, loss of ability to feel, slowing or loss of reflexes. Ninety percent of all cases, the main symptom of Guillain-Barre syndrome is muscle weakness.
As a general rule, the duration of an attack of polyneuropathy is not more than eight weeks, and without proper treatment, recovery from the syndrome lasts for several months. Prompt initiation of treatment greatly accelerates the process of recovery, which may take a few days or weeks. Approximately three percent of the cases after Guillain-Barre syndrome develop chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. The main treatment - plasmapheresis (filtration of blood) or intravenous immune globulin. Such treatments are relatively safe, accelerate the recovery process and significantly reduce the risk of disability caused by polyneuropathy.
Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy
Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (chronic acquired polyneuropathy) - a type of polyneuropathy, which, like Guillain-Barre syndrome, accompanied by muscular weakness observed over a long period of time. From three to ten percent of all cases of Guillain-Barre lead to the development of chronic polyneuropathy.
The main symptom of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy - muscle weakness, numbness
Numbness - a harmless signal or a sign of the terrible?
, Tingling in the extremities.
The symptoms of polyneuropathy are observed over a long period of time, may be aggravated with time or be sporadic. For the diagnosis of this type of polyneuropathy used electromyography, nerve conduction study and puncture cerebrospinal fluid, in rare cases - the nerve biopsy. To suppress the symptoms of neurological disorders used corticosteroids (prednisone) or immunosuppressants (azathioprine). If neuropathy causes acute symptoms or quickly progresses, can be assigned to an injection of immune globulin or plasma exchange. The duration of treatment may be several months or even years.