Methods of therapy - correction of behavior through science
December 12, 2013
In psychotherapy, there are many different methods, each of which has a lot of supporters. In his work as a doctor may use one method at a time and use a variety of techniques and therapies.
As research in the field of psychotherapy are extremely difficult to determine which of the methods of psychotherapy is better, it is hardly possible. Research, which gave a more or less certain results, often focused on specific issues, which are easy to identify, and efficiency with which it can be estimated using certain criteria. For most mental disorders is not applicable, as they are extremely complex, and must be seen as a set of problems. We'll talk about some of the most common methods of psychotherapy, which are currently widely used to treat patients with a variety of disorders.
This broad trend in psychotherapy, whose representatives have introduced such familiar terms as neurosis
Neurosis - reaction to the nervous shock
Conflict, object relations, unconscious defense mechanisms, id, ego, super-ego, libido, transference, countertransference, and many others. Here are some methods that are psychodynamic psychotherapy: psychoanalysis
Psychoanalysis from it to the superego
(Sigmund Freud), Adlerian psychotherapy (Alfred Adler), analytic therapy (Carl Jung), ego psychology (Heinz Kohut).
The original Freudian theory based on the notion of the conflict, which he regarded as the core of human existence. These conflicts arise when we try to agree on the biological side of his personality, with its social side. The main aspects of these conflicts relate to the unconscious, and affect the behavior of a person without his knowledge. The main objective of psychodynamic psychotherapy - to help people become aware of the unconscious, to better understand their needs and behavior, and take control of the influence of unconscious conflicts in their lives.
Using the methods of Adlerian psychotherapy to help patients overcome their sense of uncertainty and create a strong social and meaningful connections. They are convinced to correct misconceptions about themselves and about the world, and try to do something that previously seemed impossible. The growing self-confidence and awareness lead to the fact that the patient begins to more actively cooperate with the therapist as well as with others. As a result of treatment the person must give up the propensity to over-active defense of self and self-justification, and learn how to create a full-fledged relationship based on trust and openness.
Proponents of humanistic psychotherapy consider man as an integrated system consisting of the mind, body and spirit. Methods used in humanistic psychotherapy, based on the idea that each person has the ability to heal itself. Among the most prominent representatives of this method of psychotherapy - Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers.
Existential psychotherapy is closely related to the humanistic, even though their principles were developed by different users. However, today most often use the term existential-humanistic psychotherapy that emphasizes the common roots of these methods.
The main task of existential psychotherapy is to assist the patient in finding constructive solutions that will enable it to cope with the difficulties of everyday life. The specialist, using this method of psychotherapy focuses on the individual human experience, exploring his personal values and perceptions, and reveals their relationship to specific social and psychological problems of the patient. The therapist gives the same value of a person's past and present, as well as to what it expects from the future.
The existential-humanistic psychotherapy methods are used simultaneously humanistic and existential therapy. Unlike, for example, psychiatrists, therapists who use these methods, do not believe that all human problems have common roots (conflicts, rooted in the unconscious). At the same time, highlighted the basic concepts around which there is much of psychological problems: death, freedom, responsibility, isolation and a sense of meaninglessness.
The therapist, using this method identifies the main patterns of thinking and behavior, determines exactly how a person supports them, and the impact they have on his life. Special attention in the cognitive behavioral therapy is given to irrational thinking, for example, automatic and catastrophic thoughts. After a detailed analysis will be thinking and behavior, the therapist and the patient will decide together what needs to change in order to solve existing problems. This process can be repeated several times, as long as the objectives are not achieved psychotherapy.
Some of the techniques that are used in cognitive behavioral therapy: Relaxation
Relaxation and stress - calm, not panic!
, Systematic desensitization, social skills training and training that strengthen confidence. Many of the techniques that are relevant to this type of therapy are derived from work Pavlov, John Watson, Joseph Volpe, Skinner.
The development of memory - Interesting Facts
December 11, 2013
Development of memory starts at an early age. Kids from birth are able to remember the sounds, images, colors and so on. But there are some paradoxes - our memory makes an interesting selection of information and much of what was already a child does not remember later, for example, ten years.
Children's amnesia is called the phenomenon by which adults can not remember what happened to them in 2-4 years - this time, in the best case, episodic memories are stored. About the age of 10 years in humans, too, is quite a bit of memories - much less than the life in older age.
What does amnesia is to develop memory? It is well known that the memory of the child develops at an early age, and, nevertheless, all people forget their own early childhood (assuming that there are rare exceptions, but so far it has not been proven).
The phenomenon of children's amnesia is largely a paradoxical. Already in the infancy the human brain is able to store a lot of information - sounds, faces, sizes, shapes, colors. Children remember the voices of loved ones, they can learn (so - remember) those who often see in real life and on TV. At an early age develop many skills that persist throughout life - this is largely due to memory. Finally, I have a four-year child can know the alphabet and even read syllables and short words - he remembers them all my life, but the events that occurred at the same time they learned to read, forgotten. It is now known that the areas of the human brain responsible for memory, a fully developed by the end of puberty
Puberty child - stages of a complex path
. It is assumed that the person starts to store events only after completion of the development of certain areas of the brain, and it occurs at different people at different ages.
The earliest memories relate to the human age from two to seven years, while women tend to remember myself at a younger age than men. Many experts are inclined to believe that most people can not remember myself at the age of 3 to 5 years. Identify real prescription childhood memories is difficult: many children have heard stories about his childhood, and they are no longer able to distinguish these stories from these memories. Anyway, the development of memory, including - remembering events - is associated with the development of speech, and the formation of "self-image", although it is not known why from early childhood to remember one thing, and quite another to forget.
Development of memory up to 2 years
So, at this age children do not remember the joint travel, games, they do not remember how you celebrated their first and second birthday, which at first gave their lives in the New Year. But every parent knows that a young child learns and remembers their favorite toy (and sometimes refuses to play with the other), a bottle, a melody, and so on. What interested, scared or surprised child, he can remember more than ten months after I first saw (or heard) this object. Similar items can cause the same reaction - surprise, fear, and so on. As a rule, the child does not remember the details, but the overall impression of the object is sufficiently stable. For example, if the doctor hurt him during one of his visits, the child may be afraid of many months later, this doctor (or people in general in white).
To promote the development of memory
The development of memory - Play wizard
a small child, to actively communicate with him, using as many different words. Image shows the child objects familiar to him, as well as photographs of loved ones - quickly begin to recognize them. Let him touch all that he is interested in, and that is safe for him - at an early age for a child's development are of particular importance tactile sensations.
Development of memory between the ages of 2 and 5 years
Development of memory stimulates not only on its own speech, but also the history that it can help to talk and understand
. Stories create a context by which many things are remembered much better than out of context
. Children who are just beginning to talk, do not pose the bare facts - they tell stories
. For example, the child is unlikely to say: "We were on the beach"
. Rather, he tells the story, for example: "We went to the beach, I had a red swimsuit and still there were mom, dad, brother and my teddy bear"
. Adults, too, remember the facts in any context - for example, they can put the new information already available in the context of their memory
. But then, unlike children, they can extract out only the most important information (in our example: we were on the beach), without mentioning the minor details
. The concept of the child about the important and unimportant information is different from the concept of this adult and adults sometimes think that he remembers insignificant details
. In fact, he remembers what's important to him
At this age, the development of memory well stimulate reading and repetition. When a child asks parents over and over again read to him the same story, he unknowingly helps her to remember yourself. It is no coincidence we remember stories of many tales that we read in childhood, and many people can even bring to mind some of the quotes from them.
The development of memory in the age of 5 years
For five years, many children know the alphabet, can be considered, at least until ten, and perform quite complex instructions, consisting of more than one item ("Go to your room, take it in the top drawer white socks, grab black shoes and takes and then come back to the living room "- a child aged 5-6 years can do it, I do not forget anything)
. At the same age clearly manifested memory feature, which is available in adults: it is best to remember that interesting
. And if an adult has the willpower to remember uninteresting, then get the child to do so is quite difficult
. Some children show a phenomenal memory when it comes to interesting areas: for example, young fans can remember with any account matches of their favorite team in the current season, in which cities were games, the number of goals scored for each player, and sometimes weight, height and age of all players (not excluding the spare)
. However, uninteresting information disappears from the child's head at once, without stopping even for an hour
A child 6-7 years is necessary to maintain interest in his favorite subjects (even if it's football, which you seem a waste of time). At the same time you need to gently explain that people have to remember and not too interesting things, and that it needs to put some effort. Learn with your child lyrics (not necessarily in the school curriculum - this is useful only for the development of memory), show him how to organize information with the help of tables and diagrams. By the age of twelve child can be used to store all of the techniques used by adults.