Uric acid - a heterocyclic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen. It is formed by the decomposition of the body of purine nucleotides.
If a person consumes a lot of foods rich in purines in the body can be formed excess uric acid. This condition is called hyperuricemia. Foods that contain a lot of purines include: liver, kidneys, red meat, some fish and alcohol and coffee, asparagus, cauliflower, mushrooms, chickpeas, lentils and spinach. However, if the level of uric acid in the blood or urine exceeds the norm, do not blame the diet. It defines only 10-15% of the production of uric acid.
What determines the production of uric acid?
Development of the main part of uric acid is dependent on DNA and ATP (adenosine-5'-triphosphate). Of the components of DNA - adenine, cytosine, guanine and thymine, two - adenine and guanine, are derivatives of purine. In an adult human each day as a result of apoptosis, or programmed cell death, die, on average, 50-70 million cells. In the bloodstream are billions of purine molecules. Some of these will be reused in the creation of new cells, but most of them are sent to the liver and there are cleaved to form uric acid and causes the kidneys. That is why in most liver contains purines.
What is ATP?
ATP - is a multifunctional co-enzyme, which is involved in metabolic processes within cells. The basic structure of ATP are purine bases. ATP stores energy, is a product of glucose
Glucose: The energy source
. When the cell needs energy, it releases ATP cleaving phosphate becomes adenosine diphosphate (ADP).
In a healthy organism ADP slowly restore energy levels, re-contacting the phosphate. However, if a person is experiencing severe physical or psychological stress, or is influenced by other factors, for a short period of time can be used a large amount of ATP and ADP thus formed can not quickly turn back into ATP. As a result of an excess of ADP it will split and develop a large amount of purine, and then - uric acid. Considered normal levels of uric acid in the blood from 3 to 7 mg / dl.
What is an overabundance of uric acid?
The excess of normal levels of uric acid in the blood can be a sign of the following offenses:
- Polycythemia vera
- Renal failure
- Toxemia of pregnancy
- Overly intense exercise
- Side effects of chemotherapy
What does a low level of uric acid?
Low levels of uric acid may be indicative of conditions such as:
- Syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone
- Fanconi's anemia
- Wilson's disease
As a rule, doctors ask patients to nothing to eat or drink for 4 hours before giving blood for analysis of uric acid levels. Drugs that may increase the level of uric acid in the blood: an alcohol, ascorbic acid, aspirin, caffeine, cisplatin, diazoxide, diuretics, epinephrine, ethambutol, levodopa, methyldopa, nicotinic acid
Nicotinic acid: what is its benefit to man?
, Phenothiazines, theophylline.
Among the drugs which may lower the level of uric acid in the blood: allopurinol, azathioprine, clofibrate, corticosteroids, estrogen
Estrogen - the key to bone health
Glucose, guaifenesin, mannitol, probenecid, warfarin
Warfarin - indirect anticoagulants
To reduce or prevent the production of uric acid, the most commonly used allopurinol and febuxostat. She treat only the symptom, not the underlying condition that caused the increase in uric acid levels. Because these drugs can cause very unpleasant side effects if possible reduce the level of uric acid is necessary with the help of changes in the diet.