- This insidious ureaplasma - often too late
- How can you get sick
- Treatment ureaplasmosis
Ureaplasma - it is one of the smallest microorganisms. However, unlike other bacteria, unicellular microorganisms living in multicellular organisms. In addition, ureaplasma can exist on its own, like a virus, but, unlike them, lend themselves to the action of certain antibiotics.
Ureaplasmas can cause inflammation of any genital tract - the urethra, prostate, bladder,
Urinary bladder - structure and function
, Testicles and their appendages, and women - the vagina, uterus and appendages. In addition, in some studies, it was found that ureaplasma may be fixed in the sperm and break their motor activity.
Types ureaplasmas - role in the development of pathological processes
According to the existing classification ureaplasmas belong to the family Mycoplasmataceae. In this family it revealed more than 180 species of Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma, which play a role in the occurrence of inflammatory diseases in the reproductive system. Ureaplasma species there are two, with eleven serotypes, which have differences in the protein composition of the cell membrane.
Features ureaplazmennoj infection pathogens
Ureaplasmas role in the occurrence of diseases of the genitourinary system in recent years tends to increase. Ureaplasmas increasingly act as a causative agent of the inflammatory process. First, the microorganism was isolated from a patient with urethritis from the urethra. In a subsequent study conducted on the properties ureaplasmas and succeeded in isolating two types (or biovar)
- U. urealyticum. This type is most important for people with diseases of the genitourinary system, most often it can be found in the obstetric and gynecological pathology in women
- U. parvum
Various Ureaplasma can be isolated not only in humans. As the host of this pathogen are the cattle, dogs, cats, hamsters, mice and other animals.
Types ureaplasmas distinguishes one feature - they are able to break down urea due to the presence of a special enzyme, which provides hydrolytic cleavage process.
In the cytoplasm of a microorganism synthesizing enzyme urease, which splits urea into ammonia. Ureaplasma unique properties is that they take on the characteristics intermediate between viruses, bacteria and protozoa. By way of the existence of this intracellular parasites, and their ability to break down urea ureaplasmas isolated class of bacteria.
The originality of the structure ureaplasmas leads to the development of resistance to antibacterial agents used in the treatment of ureaplasma and mycoplasma infection. Also noted their higher growth compared with other members of this family.
Symptoms of infection
For the time the infection may be asymptomatic, or may be accompanied by purulent discharge, itching, burning during urination, and discomfort during intercourse, frequent urination and pain.
Determining the type of ureaplasmas
Identify the type of ureaplasmas is important to determine the tactics of patients. Upon detection of a human species U. parvum specific treatment is not required in the absence of any clinical symptoms of the disease. Another tactic is to be made at identifying the type of U. urealyticum. Perform differentiation Ureaplasma species can only be based on molecular methods, such as by diagnostic PCR techniques. The indications for the establishment of the species of the pathogen are the following conditions:
- preparations for the forthcoming pregnancy, especially in the case of pathological conditions during a previous pregnancy (obstructed labor, miscarriage
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and other complications)
- treatment of infertility in the couple, which is caused by an infectious factor
- the presence of any pathological symptoms of the genitourinary
- exact setting to select the type of microorganism treatment tactics
Ureaplasma can be isolated in a small amount in a large number of people of reproductive age (80%). Infection can occur even in utero, and the disease will manifest itself many years later with the appearance of an enabling environment (the presence of comorbidities, deferred common diseases, reduced immune strength, surgery).
If a person is a carrier of the pathogen (determination ureaplasma in an amount up to 10 * 4 CFU / ml) had no clinical manifestations of the inflammatory disease, the specific therapy is not required.
Various ureaplasmas can proliferate in urogenital tract as symbionts, and this does not affect the general state of the person. This form of carrier is not a pathological condition. When healthy carrier ureaplasmas asymptomatic infection can become active under the influence of various factors that lead to the development of the disease, for example, NGU or other pathology.
Ureaplasma localization in the urinary tract in isolation is rare. Known ureaplasmas found in association with other microflora (chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomonas
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Bacteria gram and gram) which may affect the nature of the disease, leading to the development of complications. Conducting qualitative detection of Ureaplasma species allows a differential diagnosis and to establish an etiological (causal) role of pathogens in the development of inflammatory diseases.
Diagnosis of infection
To diagnose infection of the lower genital tract bacteria ureaplasmas difficult because these organisms do not grow in ordinary bacterial environment for the detection and identification of the substance requires special. In particular, male-pattern analysis can be performed only by molecular diagnostic PCR, i.e. only in specialized laboratories.
Ureaplasma divided into two subtypes, Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum, which can be differentiated only by diagnostic PCR. Ureaplasmas pathogenic microorganisms in the female genital tract is still unknown, many consider them part of the normal bacterial flora of the vagina. But if these organisms are found in the appropriate clinical setting, it is strongly recommended aggressive treatment with antibiotics to prevent complications.
Diagnosis and treatment of diseases associated with ureaplasmas impede the following factors:
- To identify microorganisms ureaplasmas requires special analysis, but even after the elections to isolate the bacteria is difficult.
- Diagnosis can not be held in hospitals, general purpose, and only in specialized laboratories.
- Ureaplasmas only susceptible to certain antibiotics; they should be taken for a long time, sometimes for several months.
- Many patients do not take antibiotics as prescribed by a physician; too early to stop drug therapy, or come into contact with a carrier of infection to full recovery.
It is noteworthy that the infection occurs most often sexually transmitted, but possibly intrauterine infection from patient mother moreover, microbes can enter the genital tract of the baby during birth and remain there life in a dormant state.
If your partner is found ureaplasma infection, it does not mean that you should change as the mechanism of infection is not yet fully understood. In any case, both are treated sexual partner, which helps prevent complications and further spread of infection.
Treatment usually consists in the use of some antibiotics tetracycline or erythromycin. Do not forget to tell your doctor if you are allergic to these medications. During treatment should completely abstain from sexual relations
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. Take antibiotics as directed by the physician and the instructions on the package. Strict adherence to all the instructions and orders of the doctor is necessary for complete elimination of infection from the body.
If you are sexually active, your partner should also against the course of antibiotic treatment. Typically, the first appointed:
- doxycycline 100 mg, 1 tablet, taken orally twice a day for 14 days, or
- Erythromycin 400 mg, 2 tablets taken four times a day for 7 days.
In fact, the partner should take the same antibiotic that a person infected with ureaplasma. After completing a course of antibiotics should be re-pass tests to check how well treatment. In the future, you may need a second course of antibiotics to prevent infection.