Diagnosis of syphilis - the necessary amount of diagnostic measures

February 2, 2014

 diagnosis of syphilis
 The success of the treatment depends primarily on how quickly diagnosed. Diagnosis of syphilis consists of the clinical features of the disease, as well as a set of methods of laboratory diagnostics. The diagnosis must be clinically justified, accurate and definitely confirmed the discovery of the causative agent.


Importance of clinical symptoms

Diagnosis of primary syphilis should be based on the early detection of the primary tumor disease. The complexity of the diagnostic approach by the fact that the appearance of the chancre may vary considerably. Differential diagnosis of syphilis is carried out with a variety of infectious diseases (such as angina), and skin diseases.

The doctors of any specialty should have knowledge of how to recognize syphilis Syphilis - punishment of Venus  Syphilis - punishment of Venus
 As the primary site can be located at any place where a person had contact with the agent. Chancre is not only found on the genitals, as well as abdominal, in the mouth, in the tonsils, that is different localization. In the process of carrying out diagnostic measures should pay attention to the dimensions of education. The size of the hearth reaches gigantic proportions, if the chancre is localized in the abdomen or pubic area. There are also dwarf chancre sizes which can be detected in the mouth on the tonsils.

Great importance is attached to clinical symptoms, as in the first period of the disease is difficult to confirm the diagnosis by blood tests. Period during the first four weeks of the primary tumor is considered to be seronegative, so serological studies should be done regularly at set time intervals.


What does the laboratory diagnosis of syphilis

Methods of diagnosis of syphilis include serological blood tests, as well as the study of cerebrospinal fluid and secretions, which can reveal the presence of the pathogen. Serological diagnosis is to identify the antibody titer Antibodies - "soldiers' immunity  Antibodies - "soldiers' immunity
   to pathogens. This indirect method, which is used for venous or capillary blood.

Considering that during the serological survey has a certain kind of disadvantages at the present stage are increasingly began to use methods of molecular genetic diagnosis.

Laboratory diagnosis of syphilis, with which identify the sequence of the DNA of the pathogen (or PCR diagnostics) differs most informative in establishing the diagnosis. There are some disadvantages of this method of research, which limits its widespread use:

  • the high cost of laboratory equipment
  • Reagents used in the diagnostic process, quite expensive

Even at the present stage of development of medicine, not all medical centers can afford to purchase laboratory equipment for PCR diagnosis. Widespread ELISA method, which refers to the standardized methods for serodiagnosis, while highly informative.

Serological diagnosis of syphilis may give false-positive, false-negative results, due to the possible reaction on the part of the antibody in the blood serum. Particular attention should be given if the patient passes inspection, has weighed on the history of rheumatoid diseases. The presence of rheumatoid factor in the blood is one of the causes of false-positive results.


How can you prove the existence of a patient treponem

There are diagnostic methods that allow you to prove conclusively that a person has syphilis. At the primary and secondary syphilis Secondary syphilis - can proceed unnoticed for several years  Secondary syphilis - can proceed unnoticed for several years
   can reliably detect the pathogen, that is pale treponemu that will be a confirmation of the diagnosis. Microbiological diagnosis of syphilis consists of microscopy. The method is highly specific, but the accuracy of the result is largely determined by the qualifications of the expert, who conducted the study. The result is also influenced by the application of various antiseptics, which can process the surface of the skin before a fence material.

Microscopy method helps to answer the question of how to determine syphilis, it is not possible to use it to evaluate the effectiveness of specific therapies. If necessary, the dynamic control of the flow of infectious process should apply the methods of serological diagnosis that will give the most relevant results for a specialist from the perspective of informative value of the method of diagnosis.

The incidence of syphilis remains high, so it is important to put into practice the methods of rapid diagnosis, allowing to obtain reliable results within a short period of time.

Rapid diagnosis of syphilis can be used as a method of screening studies of a large number of people, there is no need to resort to costly methods of laboratory diagnostics.

Most people are familiar with the possibilities of modern diagnosis of the disease, so often self-treated in the laboratory to undergo investigation. In order to properly answer the question how to detect syphilis, recommended to get professional advice, which will be able to determine the necessary amount of study, taking into account the period of illness, the presence or absence of clinical symptoms. It has a large value of the time factor, namely, when a study made in terms of the possible period of syphilis. To determine such details should only be a specialist, as the quality of the survey in the future determines the success of the prescribed course of specific therapy.

Marina Solovyov

Article Tags:
  • syphilis

Anal warts - prevents the normal functioning of the intestine

April 19, 2013

 anal warts
 Anal warts are not uncommon. Like other warts, they are caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). But their location in a narrow anal canal may interfere with the normal operation of the gastrointestinal tract. Symptoms of the disease can be pain and bleeding during a bowel movement.

 Anal warts - prevents the normal functioning of the intestine

Features of the structure of the anal canal

The anal canal is called the end of the rectum, it starts from the expansion of the rectum (capsules) and continues to the anus (anus). In adults, the length of the anal canal is from 2, 5 to 5 cm. The anal canal is very narrow because of the contraction of its circular muscles (sphincters), locking out of the intestines. During defecation and anal sphincters relax channel expands.

A feature of the anal canal is the presence in the area of ​​a large number of nerve endings, blood vessels and small veins. This makes the anal canal is very sensitive to various influences.

 Anal warts - prevents the normal functioning of the intestine

Why is there

Anal warts - is one of the manifestations of HPV infection, which is caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). Usually, anal warts caused 6 and 11 HPV types.

Infection occurs through homosexual or normal (heterosexual) sex. Most anal warts are combined with perianal (located around the anus - the anus), and genital. After asking the patient, which were first warts, it can be assumed that a route of infection.

While homosexual contact HPV can enter directly into the anal canal and introduced into the cells of the epithelium of its deeper layers. In addition, the infectious agent may be in the area of ​​the anal canal perialalnoy area or genitals. There he most often is for at least a month (but sometimes willows for many years) does not prove itself. But when cells are aging, moving to the surface and peel, HPV goes to the mucosal surface - he is ready to to infect a sex partner or cause disease. For the first manifestations of the disease should, as a rule, decreased immunity Immunity - types and characteristics in children in adults  Immunity - types and characteristics in children in adults
   this allows HPV freely enter cells of the epithelium.

Affected HPV epithelial cells start to divide rapidly - growing warts.

 Anal warts - prevents the normal functioning of the intestine

How does

Anal warts are small, grayish-pink growths (more like a grain) in the mucosa of the anal canal. They rarely grow to considerable size, however, can be permanently injured stool and this creates a problem: genital warts can bleed and become infected.

But most of the anal warts do not arise on their own, and move on to the mucosa of the anal canal of the perianal area (the area around the anus) is the most frequently encountered in the giant genital warts perianal area (Buschke-Lowenstein tumor). These tumors are also more prone to other warts malignancy - transformation into malignant tumors.

The presence of anal warts can guess when you have problems with defecation. If constipation and hard stool passing the patients' first discomfort and itching, followed by severe pain. Often during stool blood in the feces released.

 Anal warts - prevents the normal functioning of the intestine


The patient with anal warts should be carefully examined. Excluded diseases such as syphilis Syphilis - punishment of Venus  Syphilis - punishment of Venus
 , HIV infection, all sexual infections. Checking the status of immunity.

Also, be sure held sigmoidoscopy - a study of the walls of the anal canal using a special endoscopic equipment. If necessary, pieces of tissue taken for histological examination to exclude malignancy Malignant tumor: cells are mad  Malignant tumor: cells are mad

 Anal warts - prevents the normal functioning of the intestine


Appoint conservative treatment - anti-viral drugs, immunostimulants. If anal warts have arisen because of the giant warts perianal region, the latter is removed. If necessary, a cauterization of warts Cauterization of warts  Cauterization of warts
   and in the anal region. Most often this is done with the help of special medicines, such as using kondilina.

Warts in the anal canal are rarely self-sufficient. Most often, the infection progresses in this area and of the skin around the anus. Sometimes anal warts can be malignant, so these patients require careful examination.

Galina Romanenko

Article Tags:
  • warts