Despite the fact that the placenta - a temporary organ that functions only during pregnancy, it affects the life support (and therefore the state) of the fetus, so the diagnosis of the placenta attaches great importance. A special role is played by ultrasound, which is carried out in certain stages of pregnancy.
Structure and function of the placenta
The placenta - a temporary organ (common for mother and child), which is produced during pregnancy and provides a connection body of the child with the mother.
The mature placenta is shaped like cakes, bounded by two plates - chorionic and basal, among which are the fruit of Nap outer shell, grown into the uterine lining, and intervillous space. By the fetal surface of the placenta is attached umbilical cord and radiating vessels. The placenta is formed by the end of the third month of pregnancy, then its structure is changing, adapting to the needs of the growing fetus. On the fifth month of pregnancy there is an increase in weight of the placenta, and a month before the birth she reaches full maturity.
The main function of the placenta - delivery to the fetus of nutrients and oxygen, its removal from the body of metabolic products
Metabolism: The basis of life of all living things
and carbon dioxide, the secretion of hormones that contribute to the growth and development of the fetus, providing immunological protection of the child, not only during pregnancy, but also in the first months after birth (placenta passes to the baby maternal antibodies to various infections and prevents the occurrence of immune conflict between the mother's body and Child).
What research provides insights on the state of the placenta
To determine the performance of any critical examination of the state of the placenta obstetrician-gynecologist (defined by certain types of provisions of the placenta, for example, its presentation) and ultrasound (determined by the location, the degree of maturity of the placenta and the condition of utero-placental blood flow). It is for these indicators and judge on the state of the placenta and how it affected you when and how much fruit.
Determining the degree of maturity of the placenta
Ehostruktura placenta (the density of its fabric determined by ultrasound) is changing with increasing gestational age. These processes are associated with the aging of the placenta. Ultrasound evaluation of the placenta usually consists of determining the degree of maturity and consistency of this index pregnancy. In addition, the thickness of the placenta and determined that it contains clusters of calcium salts (petrifikatov).
The classification is based on the maturity of the placenta put characteristic changes in it that occur, starting from the 26th week of pregnancy. The process of changing the structure of the placenta is uneven, it usually starts at the periphery of the placenta and is distributed to its center. There are four stages of changes in the structure of the placenta. In uncomplicated pregnancy in most cases the placenta passes successively ripening stage 0 to III. The most frequently found in the zero stage for up to 30 weeks, I stage - at 27-36 weeks, II stage - at 34-39 weeks, III stage - after 36 weeks of pregnancy.
In late pregnancy, the placenta comes physiological aging is accompanied by a decrease in the area of its exchange surface, the appearance of areas of salt deposits
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calcium. After 32 weeks of pregnancy, almost half of pregnant women in the placenta found petrifikaty - a natural process.
What threatens premature aging of placenta
In some cases, the process can be accelerated maturation of the placenta and the maturity stage III appears at the beginning of the III trimester (after 24 weeks). It was found that premature aging placenta more common in women with late miscarriage
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, Preterm birth and placental insufficiency. But in some cases, the premature aging of the placenta is not accompanied by any deviations from the fetus and the woman is an individual feature.
In addition, the fetus and placenta have big compensatory possibilities, so to speak of the blood supply to the fetus can be a violation only when there is additional evidence of the suffering of the fetus. In other cases, the aging of the placenta is regarded as a risk factor to reduce the function of the placenta.
Additional studies conducted in premature aging of the placenta, is primarily ultrasound state utero-placental blood flow. If blood flow is not disrupted, the premature aging of the placenta can not be treated.
Causes of premature aging of the placenta
Premature aging of the placenta can be seen as a characteristic of women, but may be the result of a pathological effect on the placenta.
The cause of abnormal premature aging of the placenta may be intrauterine infection, toxicosis pregnant, endocrine disease, multiple pregnancy, previous abortions, smoking and some other reasons.
As a result, it may develop fetoplacental insufficiency
Placental insufficiency - deviation from the norm
At which the circulatory disorders of the fetus. A small disturbance can be compensated, but with significant circulatory disorders fetus begins to receive less nutrients (behind in weight), and most importantly - oxygen (affects all the organs, especially the brain). As a result, the child may die or be born with disorders of the brain.
If a woman has revealed premature aging of the placenta in violation of utero-placental blood flow, it must always be under medical supervision department of pathology of pregnancy and receive treatment, improves blood circulation of mother and fetus.