Tests during pregnancy: a necessary minimum

August 22, 2012

 tests during pregnancy
 Once a woman became pregnant and got registered in the antenatal clinic, she was immediately discharged to the various forms of sea tests. It would seem, what does it do, because pregnancy - is not a disease but it is a physiological condition. The answer is yes banality is simple: the expectant mother is responsible not only for their health but also the health of the baby, so it is important to regularly visit the obstetrician and promptly held a variety of surveys. A woman should be prepared for constant delivery of analyzes during pregnancy, especially if she has any chronic diseases. In addition, periodic repeat some tests reveals hidden pathology before the onset of symptoms (eg, anemia, or pyelonephritis).

General blood analysis

Blood is a liquid tissue organism red. The main components of the blood are plasma, red blood cells (erythrocytes), white blood cells (leukocytes) and platelets. Erythrocytes and the hemoglobin contained in them are involved in the transport of oxygen to cells and tissues. Leukocytes perform a protective function of the body (e.g., a leukocytosis indicates inflammation) and platelets provide blood clotting.

Total blood during pregnancy, the expectant mother must pass at least three times: at the registration (before 12 weeks) in the second trimester (18 to 28 weeks) and third (32 weeks). Sometimes, on the testimony appoint another common blood just before birth (after appropriate treatment). Also, repeated blood tests are carried out in the treatment of anemia in pregnant women, to monitor the effectiveness of treatment.

Blood tests for HIV, hepatitis and syphilis

Blood tests for HIV, hepatitis Hepatitis - the scourge of our time  Hepatitis - the scourge of our time
   and syphilis Syphilis - punishment of Venus  Syphilis - punishment of Venus
   also carried out at least three times during pregnancy (every trimester). For this analysis, using venous blood. Blood is necessary to take on an empty stomach to avoid the risk of false positive results. The need for testing for transmissible infections in each trimester due to the long incubation period of these diseases. That is, when the infection, such as hepatitis symptoms are not immediate, and the results of the analysis can determine the infection.

General urine analysis

Urinalysis pregnant woman should take regularly, since for registration, and then before each appearance before the antenatal clinic. Before collecting urine should be thoroughly washed away, and introduce the swab into the vagina How to use sanitary pad - basic precautions  How to use sanitary pad - basic precautions
 , To exclude vaginal cables Beli: abnormal discharge  Beli: abnormal discharge
   to collect urine. For a general analysis of urine, it must be morning midstream.

First evaluated in the analysis of urine color (all shades of yellow). Deviations from the normal color when consuming certain foods (beetroot, cherry and blackberry). The following evaluation criteria urine - is its transparency. Normally urine is clear, no precipitate and no pathological contains impurities. Turbid urine indicative of excessive content of salts, bacteria, white blood cells, blood or pus. Equally important is the density of the urine. Normal figures correspond to 1010 - 1025 g / l. High density urine shows elevated levels of glucose in it or protein, low on the possible renal disease or hormonal disturbances.

Furthermore, in the urine sample are determined hemocyte. Red blood cells are normally absent in the urine. The presence of microscopic hematuria (blood in urine) suggests glomerulonephritis and urolithiasis. A large number of white blood cells in the urine (leukocyturia) observed in inflammatory processes in the kidney - pyelonephritis. Normally, in the overall analysis of urine protein should not be determined or only traces (to 0, 033 g / l). Proteinuria (protein in the urine) is one of the first signs of developing preeclampsia.

Vaginal swabs

  • Smear on the flora of the vagina

Smear on the flora of the vagina is taken at the registration and at each gynecological examination. Required fence contents of the vagina in 36 weeks (before birth).

  • Pap cytology

The smear cytology - a scraping from the cervix to detect pathological processes, including cancer of the cervix. This analysis is taken when registering.

Anna Sozinova

Article Tags:
  • pregnancy tests

Doppler Fetal necessary research

July 6, 2011

 Doppler fetal
 In the middle of the XIX century Austrian physicist and astronomer HI Opened Doppler effect changes the oscillation frequency of wave motion of the source and the observer with respect to each other. The Doppler effect is used today for research utero-placental blood flow, in which a fetus receives nutrients and oxygen, and the output of toxic products of metabolism Metabolism: The basis of life of all living things  Metabolism: The basis of life of all living things
   and carbon dioxide.

 Doppler Fetal necessary research

What is Fetal Doppler

Doppler (Doppler ultrasound) the fetus relates to additional methods of ultrasound and is carried out to study the nature and speed of blood flow in the mother - placenta - fetus. Held on Doppler ultrasound machine with a special sensor. This study is of great importance to identify placental insufficiency Placental insufficiency - deviation from the norm  Placental insufficiency - deviation from the norm
   in intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR).

The method is used for almost twenty years, it is simple and highly informative. The essence of the Doppler effect applied in the study of utero-placental circulation, is to ensure that the ultrasonic vibration frequency reference sent to the tissue are reflected by moving red blood cells in the blood vessels and back to the sensor returns to the ultrasound frequency changes. Magnitude changes in the frequency of ultrasound is dependent on the speed and direction of movement of erythrocytes.

Changes to the parameters of the reflected signal is recorded in the form of curves of blood flow rates (MMR), which are then analyzed and detected changes in blood flow in the vessels of the mother and the placenta.

Usually recorded dopplerograms following vessels: the mother and the iliac artery mother, the fetus - umbilical artery, the aorta, and sometimes - the brain vessels, and internal carotid artery.

Depending on the nature of the pregnancy and the rate of blood flow in the uterine arteries and in the aorta of the fetus changes. The rate of blood flow in the umbilical artery is significantly lower than the rate in the aorta, due to the remoteness of the blood vessel from the heart of the fetus. Of particular interest are the data ratio of blood flow in the uterine arteries and fetal umbilical artery, which can detect placental insufficiency, that is a violation of the blood supply to the fetus full, which leads to slow or stop its development. For more information about the features of the fetal circulation can be obtained in the evaluation and comparison of blood flow in the aorta and vessels of the brain of the fetus. Doppler fetal helps to take timely measures to restore the utero-placental blood flow and prevent complications of the fetus.

 Doppler Fetal necessary research

This is a Doppler fetal

Doppler fetal held for suspected violation of utero-placental blood flow. The risk for this disease are women with late toxicosis of pregnancy, hypertension, pyelonephritis, collagen disease (systemic growth of connective tissue), diabetes mellitus Diabetes - threatening and incurable disease  Diabetes - threatening and incurable disease
 , Rh incompatibility of blood between mother and fetus. In addition, the matter of availability of these features in previous pregnancies.

Indications for Doppler there by the fetus, they are detected during ultrasound and cardiotocography (CTG - monitoring of fetal heart rate). This growth retardation, premature maturation of the placenta, expressed oligohydramnios, small-fetal gestational age, congenital heart disease Heart defects - time heals?  Heart defects - time heals?
 , Abnormal development of fetuses in multiple pregnancies, fetal brain edema, changes kardiotokogrammah, suspected of chromosomal disorders (eg Down syndrome), abnormal development of the umbilical cord.

Doppler is performed, starting with 20 weeks, but sometimes earlier when indicated.

 Doppler Fetal necessary research

The dependence of intrauterine growth retardation on the severity of vascular disorders

There are several degrees of violation of utero-placental and fetal blood flow:

  • I degree - there is an infringement only the mother (A) or only the fruit (B) blood flow;
  • Grade II - violates both the mother and fetal blood flow, but critical values ​​of these violations do not reach;
  • Grade III - impaired blood flow reaches a critical value.

Here at I A degree of violations of IUGR was observed in one third of cases, and all of them failed to adjust with the help of conservative treatment, and for III degree of IUGR was detected in all the subjects, and some of the children could not be saved. In most cases, severe vascular disorders conservative treatment is ineffective and the only way to help is urgent cesarean delivery.

Doppler allows time to detect and prevent serious complications during pregnancy.

Galina Romanenko

Article Tags:
  • fetation