Usually tachycardia is caused by interruptions in the supply of electrical impulses that control the rate of pumping blood to the heart, a heart rhythm. Thus, tachycardia is a rapid heart rate.
Disruptions can be caused by the following situations, disorders and diseases:
- response to certain drugs;
- congenital anomalies of the heart;
- drinking too much alcohol;
- the consumption of cocaine and other recreational (light) drugs;
- electrolyte imbalance;
- heart diseases that cause deterioration of blood supply and tissue injury of the heart, including coronary heart disease (atherosclerosis), diseases of the heart valves, cardiac insufficiency, heart muscle disease (cardiomyopathy), tumor or infection.
- hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid gland);
- some lung diseases.
Sometimes the exact cause of tachycardia can not be established.
Atria, ventricles and the system of electrical conduction of the heart
The human heart has four chambers:
- Atria, two upper division (left atrium and right atrium), with relatively thin walls, because their purpose - only to pump blood into the ventricles of the muscle.
- The ventricles: the two lower divisions (the left ventricle and right ventricle).
Heart Naturally equipped kind pacemaker - sinoatrial node, which is located in the right atrium
. Sinus code generates electrical pulses, each of which stimulates the heart beat (ie, heart rate)
. Electrical impulses (stimuli) sinus pass through the atrium, which leads to muscle contractions of the atria
. As a result of muscle contraction atrial blood enters the ventricles
. Further electrical pulses are applied to the atrioventricular node (AV node), which is part of the cardiac conduction system and located in the atrial septum
. Atrioventricular node slows the electrical impulses and then sends them to the ventricles
. Delay electrical impulses atrioventricular node provides the ventricles time to fill with blood
. When ventricular muscle obtained electrical pulses are reduced, pumping blood to the lungs, or in the rest of the body
When violations of the electrical conduction of the heart quickens the heartbeat, leading to tachycardia. The most common types of tachycardia are:
- Atrial fibrillation (atrial fibrillation)
When the two upper heart chambers - the atria - too often reduced and irregular, there is atrial fibrillation or atrial fibrillation. It is kind of supraventricular tachyarrhythmias with chaotic electrical activity of the atria with a pulse frequency of 350-700 per minute, which eliminates the possibility of a coordinated contraction. The episode of atrial fibrillation can last from several hours to several days. Sometimes an episode goes by without treatment. In most patients with atrial fibrillation observed cardiac pathology associated with this disorder. Chronic atrial fibrillation leads to a small increase in the risk of death.
Atrial flutter - a heart rhythm disorder (arrhythmia) that starts in the upper parts of the heart (the atria). It is characterized by a sharp quickening of rhythmic contractions of the atria, caused by abnormal movement of the excitation wavelength of the myocardium. The episode of atrial flutter may last a few hours or a few days. In some cases, it does not stop without treatment. Atrial flutter is sometimes a complication of surgery, but may also be due to various forms of cardiovascular disease. In patients with atrial flutter usually seen as atrial fibrillation.
- Supraventricular (supraventricular) tachycardia
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Supraventricular tachycardia - a frequent contractions of the heart, in which the pulses are generated above the ventricles, namely in the atria or the atrioventricular node. Pathology of the electrical conduction of the heart are usually congenital, and generating a series of overlapping signals. Nadzheludochnoy tachycardia episode may last from a few seconds up to several hours. In some forms nadzheludochnoy tachycardia, atrioventricular node shares an electrical pulse into two, one of which enters into the ventricles, and the second is returned to the atria.
Ventricular tachycardia - a frequent contractions of the heart, in which the source is more frequent rate in the ventricles of the heart. The heart rate does not allow the ventricles fill with blood and full cut, resulting in insufficient blood supply to the body. Ventricular tachycardia may be a congenital anomaly, and it can also be a consequence of the defeat of the heart muscle, coronary artery disease or cardiomyopathy. Regardless of the reasons, ventricular tachycardia is always dangerous, because it can cause disruption of the rhythm and sudden cardiac arrest.
- Fibrillation (flicker) of the ventricles
Ventricular fibrillation - is arrhythmic, uncoordinated and ineffective contraction of the ventricles of individual muscle groups with a frequency of 300 per minute. When this does not occur in the ventricles of pressure, and cardiac function ceases. If a normal heart rhythm is not restored quickly, blood flow stops and the patient will die. Ventricular fibrillation occurs in patients with heart disease, or those who have suffered severe heart damage due to lightning.
Nutrition and lifestyle
Unhealthy eating habits and lifestyle can also be one of the causes of tachycardia. A diet high in cholesterol may lead to the development of atherosclerosis - a disease in which the inner walls of arteries formed body fat, which in turn leads to a smaller flow of blood to the heart. Excessive intake of alcohol and caffeine can also affect the heart, which leads to atrial fibrillation and tachycardia. Excessive stress
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- Another culprit tachycardia, especially among young people. It can cause tachycardia anxiety? Despite the fact that the transient tachycardia may occur in situations when you are nervous and are experiencing severe anxiety, it does not represent a serious threat to health, since the symptoms of tachycardia
Symptoms of tachycardia: the timely detection
usually disappear when you calm down. Drug addiction may also cause tachycardia. The diet with very high or very low in sodium may also be one of the causes of tachycardia, so leads to electrolyte imbalance, which in its clinical picture resembles tachycardia.
Some other diseases can also affect the heart and the heart rate, and as a result, cause tachycardia. Such diseases include diseases in which there is an increase in blood viscosity; viscous blood interferes with normal blood flow. In addition, the cause of tachycardia may also have other diseases associated with the violation of blood circulation. Some thyroid disease
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In particular, hyperthyroidism, can cause sinus tachycardia. Lung disease (emphysema, pneumonia, pulmonary embolism, and others) often result in tachycardia. Finally, use of certain drugs can cause tachycardia, e.g., a tachycardia occurs when a sudden change in the dose of antiarrhythmic drugs.