Gluten intolerance or celiac disease - the most common disease of the digestive system. We are talking about food intolerances autoimmune origin. Absorption gluten cause of illness in the small intestine. Moreover, digestive problems entail problems during absorption of nutrients (calcium, iron, vitamin B9).
The classical form of gluten intolerance occurs mainly in infants and young children. Also, the disease may be manifested in women, mostly in the age from 40 to 50 years and men 50 to 60 years.
What is gluten?
Gluten - a complex of proteins found in some cereals, namely wheat, rye, barley and oats. With this range of products appetizing and delicious.
Causes of gluten intolerance are not yet definitively identified, however, a genetic predisposition to this type of disease is evident.
Actually gluten intolerance in 95% of individuals with peculiar leukocyte antigen (HLA): HLA-DQ2. The remaining 5% belong to the group with the antigen HLA-DQ8. But this does not mean that the carriers of this group will suffer from a severe intolerance to gluten. Nevertheless, should not be introduced gluten into the diet of baby too early, it can cause the development of the disease.
Forms of gluten intolerance
There are four forms of gluten intolerance:
- A typical form of the disease manifests itself in melenkih children and is characterized by diarrhea, abdominal distention, vomiting, weight loss and stop growth.
- Atypical form of celiac disease in a more severe form is transferred into adulthood. It can cause iron deficiency, frequent abdominal pain, hypoplasia
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(incomplete development) of tooth enamel, joint pain
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and even multiple miscarriages.
- Two other forms of asymptomatic nature. In this case, it is a sub-clinical and latent celiac disease. Subclinical celiac disease can be detected on physical examination. If it occurs without any symptoms, its treatment, however, entails an improvement of both physical and psychological. Latent form of celiac disease is detected during serologic blood test.
Gluten intolerance causes different kinds of complications. Such disease may lead to the development of lymphocytic colitis intestine. The disease can cause liver disorders at, for example, primary biliary cirrhosis. Increased risk of cancer, such as limfadenoma, small bowel adenocarcinoma, primary liver cancer, colorectal cancer or pancreatic cancer
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. There may be a hormonal disease, mucocutaneous, neurological and gynecological. Complications can arise in the case of immunity gluten-free diet. It is a tropical diarrhea.
Gluten intolerance occurs with or without symptoms, it complicates the diagnosis of this disease. You must first carry out a blood test to detect specific antibodies. If the test is positive, the doctor prescribes a biopsy of the small intestine with an endoscope that can show atrophy of the intestinal villi. This biopsy should be carried out before the appointment of a gluten-free diet and a year after its implementation, to ensure the successful regrowth of intestinal villi. Diagnosing gluten intolerance is possible during the complex immunological and histological studies. Note that the analysis for the presence of antibodies to be negative after applying a gluten-free diet. In addition, diagnosis can be confirmed by observing amelioration of a gluten-free diet.
Gluten intolerance and allergies
Not to be confused with gluten intolerance are allergic to grains and sensitivity to gluten.
Allergies can be food and breathing. Immediate symptoms include nausea and vomiting.
From gluten sensitivity affected mostly adults, and this sensitivity is manifested by bloating, abdominal pain, headaches and pains in the joints and muscles. Specific diagnostic detection of gluten sensitivity do not exist. But if gluten intolerance or allergies were not identified and there is improvement in compliance with a gluten-free diet, it is safe to talk about the sensitivity to products containing gluten.
To date, there is no single drug method of treatment of celiac disease
Celiac disease - not quite intestinal pathology
. The only solution - a permanent observance of strict gluten-free diet. The recommended daily intake is less than 50 grams, while in Europe this rate varies from 10 to 20 grams per day.
Starting a diet is often difficult to give people with gluten intolerance. They face problems because they do not always know which foods should be eaten. Keeping this kind of diet for assistance should contact the dietitian.
The purpose of a gluten-free diet - to neutralize the clinical symptoms and reduce the risk of complications. Basically, when a diet, the symptoms disappear very quickly. But in the case of termination of supply according to the rules, the symptoms again renewed.
Products that are contraindicated in celiac disease: corn, rye, barley, oats, kamut, triticale, spelled. In short, it is necessary to exclude all foods containing grains and products in which the grains act as an additional component. It is necessary to pay attention to the medications. Yet, the diet allows for a variety of products: cereals and starch (corn, rice, quinoa), potatoes, dried vegetables, frozen foods, canned foods and fresh natural foods (meat, fish, eggs, dairy products, fruits, vegetables). Risk of cold meats, cheese sandwich, cheeses and ready-made meals from the store. Supplementing with iron and vitamins can be a must, so you should consult with a specialist on health and nutrition.
Today, gluten-free products can be purchased in supermarkets. According to European law on the label should be marked "gluten-free" (less than 20 mg / kg) or "weak gluten content" (21-100mg / kg). Sometimes the level of gluten simply stated, for example, on the labels of prepared meals. In that case, you just need to pay attention to the label and the composition of the food. If in doubt, it is better to refrain from buying.
Diet leads to an improvement of the patients, but at the same time has an impact on the social aspect of life. With such a diet have difficulty going to the restaurant or organizing a picnic with friends. However, a picnic can take with gluten-free, and the restaurant is not to be shy and you can simply specify whether part of the gluten-free dishes. Increasingly, the restaurants offer gluten-free dishes.