Physiological processes occurring in women during their reproductive years, called the menstrual cycle, it is primarily focused on the possibility of fertilization. That is why the menstrual cycle and ovulation are two closely related concepts. In healthy women for almost all menstrual cycles ovulation occurs that determines its ability to conceive. In other words, the correct sound-term ovarian menstrual cycle. Ovulation, as does the menstrual cycle is dependent on many factors and any external or internal changes affect its process.
Ovulation (translated from Latin ovum - the egg) - a process that is characterized by access to the abdominal cavity from the ovary of a mature oocyte ready to be fertilized. Ovulation - is one of the phases of the menstrual cycle and occurs approximately every month. Conventionally, ovulation menstrual cycle divides into two phases, the follicular and luteal. The process of ovulation
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It depends on the neurohumoral mechanisms, in particular gonadotropin of anterior pituitary hormones (FSH and LH). Ovulation occurs as a result of accumulation of follicular fluid and thinning of the tissues of the ovary on the main (dominant) follicle. Stopping ovulation normally occurs during pregnancy and after forty years (premenopausal).
Signs of ovulation include the appearance of small lower abdominal pain
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, Increased vaginal discharge and reduction of basal body temperature on the day of release of the egg, with subsequent increase in the next day. In addition, many women during ovulation point increase in sexual desire, which is associated with the peak of sexual hormones.
The lack of ovulation (anovulation) is a sign of an illness that leads to hormonal disturbances. It may be inflammatory diseases of the pelvic organs, the pathology of the adrenal or thyroid gland, the hypothalamus and pituitary tumors, diabetes mellitus
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, Stress. Anovulation - the first sign of infertility women. In some cases, there is an additional ovulation (for strong sexual feelings).
The follicular or proliferative phase is considered the first phase of the menstrual cycle. On average, it takes about fourteen days (28-day menstrual cycle). Immediately after the end of menstruation the ovaries under the influence of follicle hubbub beginning to synthesize estrogen. Under the influence of estrogen is an intensive proliferation and proliferation of the functional layer of the endometrium. In addition, growth of glands. The thickness of the mucosa by the end of the first phase of the menstrual cycle reaches four - five millimeters. The glands of the cervix begin to intensively produce mucus, which explains the increase in vaginal discharge. Cervical channel opens and becomes easily passable for sperm. In this phase under the influence of FSH, follicle begins to grow actively, which later will mature egg.
When estrogen levels reach their peak in the pituitary gland begins to synthesize luteinizing hormone, which occurs due to the rupture of the follicle, from which the mature egg. The egg enters the abdominal cavity where it is captured fimbriae of the fallopian tube, whereupon the egg continues to move in the lumen of the tube. If at this time, she met with the sperm, the fertilization takes place. The fertilized egg tends to get into the uterus to be implanted there. If conception has not occurred, begins the next phase of the menstrual cycle - luteal.
Luteal or secretory phase of the cycle takes place under the action of luteinizing hormone, which stimulates the production of progesterone
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. In this phase of the lining of the uterus stops growing, it becomes loose and edematous. By the end of the luteal phase of the corpus luteum undergoes reverse development, the level of progesterone snizhet begins rejection of the functional layer of the endometrium (menstruation).
- menstrual cycle and ovulation