- Progesterone - norm and pathology
- What is Progesterone
What is Progesterone
Progesterone - a steroid (ie, having descended from cholesterol) hormone produced by the corpus luteum of the ovary (which is developed on the site of the ruptured follicle after exit from the egg - ovulation) by the adrenal cortex, the seminal vesicles in men and the placenta. Formulations of progesterone and its synthetic analogues are used as medicaments. Determination of progesterone in blood or its main metabolite (metabolite) in urine pregnanediol is of great diagnostic value, particularly in miscarriage
Miscarriage - why you lose the most precious thing?
Education progesterone ovarian pregnancy is regulated by luteinizing hormone (LH) of the pituitary gland (the main endocrine gland located in the brain), and pregnancy - human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), which is called the pregnancy hormone.
Production of progesterone depends on the woman's menstrual cycle: the number of its sharply increased in the second half of the menstrual cycle after ovulation
Ovulation - How to determine as accurately as possible?
. During pregnancy, the amount of progesterone in the blood is increased ten times. The collapse of progesterone occurs mainly in the liver, where it is decomposed into a number of biologically inactive substances, chief among which is pregnendiol.
The mechanism of action and the basic functions
The mechanism of action of progesterone is performed for all the general principle of steroid hormones. Progesterone penetrate the tissue cells and interacts there with proteins resulting complex is transferred to the cell nucleus and stimulates the production of specific proteins and changes in the functional state of various organs.
Progesterone is involved in changes in the uterine mucosa associated with the menstrual cycle: under its influence during the second half of the menstrual cycle occurs proliferation endometrium needed to introduce the embryo. Also changes the functional state of the fallopian tubes, vagina and breasts.
One of the main physiological functions of progesterone is the inhibition of contractility of the muscles of the uterus, especially during pregnancy.
Reduced secretion of progesterone by the corpus luteum (outside pregnancy) results in the failure of the second half of the menstrual cycle and inadequate preparation of the mucous membrane of the uterus for pregnancy.
Effect of progesterone in the blood on the body
Progesterone levels during the first half of the menstrual cycle (in this period are basically other hormones - estrogens) is 0, 4-0, 8 ng / ml, and in the second half - from 3 to 30 ng / ml (depending on the day cycle). At the peak activity of the corpus luteum, which produces progesterone (days 18-23, the 28-day menstrual cycle), progesterone levels below 7 ng / ml indicates luteum hormone deficiency. As a result of such failure, it is relatively increased in the blood of other female sex hormones - estrogens, which could lead to the development of hormone-dependent diseases (mastopathy, endometriosis
Endometriosis - a serious problem with serious consequences
, Uterine fibroids, and so on).
If you violate follicle ovulation (release of an egg from the follicle) may not occur, and therefore, is not formed and yellow body, which should produce progesterone. Such single-phase menstrual cycle leads, firstly, infertility, and secondly, - the widening of the uterus and its appendages mammary glands.
In normal pregnancy progesterone in the blood increases from 15 to 25 ng / ml in the first 12 weeks and at the end of pregnancy can reach 200 ng / ml. Lack of education of progesterone in the first 12 weeks of pregnancy can lead to miscarriage.
Formulations of progesterone
Natural progesterone is prescribed for therapeutic purposes in various diseases that are associated with deficiency of this hormone. Examples of formulations containing natural progesterone can serve utrozhestan
Utrozhestan - corrects the deficiency of progesterone
, Which is used in endocrine infertility, premenstrual syndrome, menstrual irregularities, breast, progesterone deficiency during menopause, threatened abortion.
Synthetic progesterone have been applied mainly in hormonal contraceptives. Current drugs of this series have high activity, which allows them to be used in very small doses, minimizing potential side effects.