Myasthenia gravis - not to be confused with chronic fatigue - Diagnosis

October 9, 2008

  • Myasthenia gravis - not to be confused with chronic fatigue
  • Diagnostics

What is myasthenia gravis, and why it occurs

Myasthenia gravis - a neuromuscular disease manifested permanent muscle weakness and fatigue, which intensified after physical activity and decreases with rest.

In the serum of patients with myasthenia gravis have antibodies to the protein of skeletal muscle, epithelial cells of the thymus gland, and receptors that can produce acetylcholine (a substance with which transmit nerve stimulation), which is a sign of an autoimmune aggression - the production of antibodies Antibodies - "soldiers' immunity  Antibodies - "soldiers' immunity
   to its own tissues (normal antibodies are produced to protect against external influences; gluing with an antigen, such as bacteria or viruses, they are precipitated and removed from the body).

In myasthenia often detected sprawl or different tumor of the thymus gland, which is responsible for the formation and development of cellular immunity Immunity - types and characteristics in children in adults  Immunity - types and characteristics in children in adults
 . Myasthenia gravis can appear immediately, provoking factors are stress, colds, immunity disorders, high physical activity, and so on.

 Diagnosis | Myasthenia gravis - not to be confused with chronic fatigue

As shown

Onset of the disease in most cases refers to 20-30 years, but sometimes begins in childhood or manifests after 50 years. Women suffer more often than men, but more common in elderly men.

The disease often subacute or chronic. There are oculomotor disturbances in the form of omission of the century (ptosis), double vision (diplopia), disorders of the muscles of the pharynx and larynx (difficulty swallowing, speech and voice disorders), general weakness and fatigue. This phenomenon manifests widespread muscle fatigue during muscle load, which takes place during the holidays.

One of the symptoms may be disruption of the endocrine glands: increased thyroid function The thyroid gland - is responsible for your hormones  The thyroid gland - is responsible for your hormones
 , Adrenal insufficiency, which in turn can cause a deficiency in potassium, which is required for the heart muscle - there are cardiovascular disorders.

 Diagnosis | Myasthenia gravis - not to be confused with chronic fatigue

The forms of myasthenia gravis

Adrift distinguish progressive form myasthenic episodes (short on time and long-term remission of the disorder - the state is increasing) and myasthenic states (continued long).

In childhood myasthenia gravis may occur as a congenital, early childhood and juvenile forms.

Congenital form appears weak fetal movements after birth - a weak cry, difficulty sucking and swallowing. After 4-6 weeks, these effects disappear. Neonatal form is characterized by a mild course and mostly local symptoms (loss of one group of muscles). The juvenile form begins in 11-16 years and manifests common disorders.

 Diagnosis | Myasthenia gravis - not to be confused with chronic fatigue

Myasthenic crisis

Under the influence of various external factors (infection, exercise, stress), disorders of the endocrine system may come sharp deterioration - myasthenic crisis. The crisis manifests the rapid spread of myasthenic disorders with significant disorders of the eye muscles, the muscles of the pharynx and larynx. Patients can not be swallowed, not only food but also saliva appear shortness of breath, anxiety, alternating with apathy. Sometimes 10-20 minutes may develop a serious condition with loss of consciousness.

 Diagnosis | Myasthenia gravis - not to be confused with chronic fatigue

What is the criteria for the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis

Myasthenia a rare disease, so is not always correct and timely diagnostitruetsya. The criteria for a correct diagnosis are:

  • typical symptoms of myasthenia gravis;
  • pharmacological test, when the background of the introduction of neostigmine (inhibits the activity of the enzyme that destroys acetylcholine) dramatically improves the patient's condition;
  • the state of neuromuscular transmission, which is verified by a special method of functional diagnostics - electromyography;
  • immunological laboratory tests (defined titer of antibodies to acetylcholine receptors and muscle protein)

Treatment of myasthenia gravis is reduced to the completion of missing acetylcholine (prescribers that suppress the activity of the enzyme that destroys atsitilholin such as Neostigmine) and suppression of the autoimmune process (steroid hormones and drugs that suppress cell-mediated immunity). Myasthenic crisis Treatment is carried out only in the hospital, sometimes in intensive care.

When a progressive form of myasthenia performed surgery - the thymus gland removed. Best results are in the case, if the operation was conducted in the first three years after onset.

  Galina Romanenko

Why do I so often have a headache? - Look for the cause in itself - Why a headache

August 3, 2008

  • Why do I so often have a headache? - Look for a cause
  • Why a headache

Why a headache

Tissue sensitivity to pain depends on the density of the nerve endings on the surface thereof. Any tissue completely insensitive to pain. The nerves of the head is in the skin, subcutaneous tissue, muscle and tendon helmet, vascular soft tissues of the head, the periosteum of the skull, meninges, intracranial arteries and veins. During stimulation of each of these structures is a headache.

 Why a headache | Why am I so often have a headache? - Look for a cause

Types of headaches

Headaches may be vascular, resulting from muscle strain, as a result of increased intracranial pressure, neuralgic, mixed and the resulting abnormalities in the pain receptors (nerve endings).

  • Vascular

Stimulation of vascular receptors occurs when excessive stretching of the arteries that can arise as under reduced pressure Low blood pressure - can it be considered normal?  Low blood pressure - can it be considered normal?
   (vasodilation and blood stagnation therein), but also at elevated (increased blood volume). Poor tone of veins also causes stagnation of blood in them and irritation of pain receptors.

In patients with hypertension Hypertension - dangerous consequences  Hypertension - dangerous consequences
   (high blood pressure), headache, pulsating character gets sick say "knock on the head."

Hypotension (low blood pressure) is characterized by a dull oppressive and bursting with pain.

Venous headache occurs when deterioration in the outflow of venous blood, the veins expand and overflow with blood. It is dull, arching and amplified by a long stay in a horizontal position. She often appears in the morning and gradually passes after getting up.

  • Muscle

Muscular headache occurs with prolonged tension or compression of the muscles of the head. The person experiences at the same time a feeling of compression bandage, or tightening of the head, as if on his head wearing a hoop. This headache may initially occur in the frontal or the nape area, then it rapidly spreads to the whole head, being transferred from muscle to muscle, tendon through which a helmet covers our head.

Most often, this pain occurs after emotional stress How to beat stress? Create an oasis  How to beat stress? Create an oasis
   or excessive physical stress. After rest and relaxation headache passes.

  • Liquorodynamic

Liquorodynamic headache occurs in violation of the intracranial pressure (as with increasing and with decreasing). This increase in intracranial pressure occurs in some areas, causing tension there meninges, blood vessels and nerves inside the skull. Headache while arching, patients are under pressure "from the depths of the brain." It is under such serious diseases as tumors, abscesses (abscesses, limited capsule), brain injury, meningitis, and others.

Decreased intracranial pressure can occur after removal of cerebrospinal fluid. Headache with the enhanced standing.

  • Neuralgia headache

Neuralgia has a number of features, which in most cases make it easy to distinguish from other types of headaches. The first sign of pain - an attack lasts a few seconds or minutes, but attacks follow one another at short intervals, causing the patient to suffer painfully for hours and days. The second sign neuralgic pain - the existence of special zones (trigger or triggers), which triggers an irritation. Even just a touch to this area can cause a headache. The third feature - the pain gives to neighboring or distant sites. The pain is usually sharp, penetrating, sharp, "like an electric shock." At the moment of pain the patient dies, he is afraid to even open his mouth and once again blink.

  • Mixed headache

Sometime during the attack to the same type of pain joins another. For example, vascular pain joins muscle. Mixed headache occurs, for example, meningitis, when there is a violation likvorodinamiki edema meninges, increased intracranial pressure, and other mechanisms of pain.

  • Psychogenic headache

Sometimes the headache occurs without any apparent reason. This pain is called psychogenic pain or headache hypochondriac. Obviously, such a headache is a result of abnormalities in the pain receptors in the head. Most often it arises against metabolic disorders Metabolism: The basis of life of all living things  Metabolism: The basis of life of all living things
 . The name does not mean psychogenic. she invented the sick.

Many types of headaches, they have a different mechanism, and hence are treated differently. To understand how and what to shoot a headache, the doctor will help you.

Article Tags:
  • headache