Pneumococcal meningitis - the most severe form of meningitis

November 9, 2013

 pneumococcal meningitis
 Pneumococcal meningitis from all types of meningitis is the most severe. It develops most often in children. Before the advent of antibiotics for pneumococcal meningitis kills nearly 100% of affected children. And even today, in the presence of highly effective antibiotics this type of meningitis is a serious problem.


Why start pneumococcal meningitis

Pneumococcal meningitis is caused by pneumococcus (Streptococcus pneumoniae), and is characterized by acute onset, severe, frequent development of meningoencephalitis and high mortality. A feature of the pneumococcus is that it has a strong protective capsule, which at the time of introduction into the body protects it from destruction by immune cells.

Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common pathogen infection that often occurs in children. The source of infection are sick people and bacilli carrier. Today it is considered that the carriers of pneumococcus are every fourth (and probably every second) child of preschool age and every fourth or fifth adult. Basically Transmission occurs by airborne droplets - sneezing, coughing, talking. But the possibility of transmission through and dirty (contaminated saliva) hands and objects.

Pneumococcal disease does not develop at all, many children and adults can be a bacilli carrier for years, but did not become ill. But if you catch a cold a bacilli carrier, will take a lot of stress How to beat stress? Create an oasis  How to beat stress? Create an oasis
   or his body will be weakened by some other disease, the very real possibility of the disease pneumococcal infection.

After direct contact with the body as pneumococcus ill mostly people with reduced immunity. More common in children, especially small, who have observed the physiological immaturity of the immune system.

But nearly half the primary source of infection in the respiratory tract and upper respiratory tract can not be found, so this pneumococcal meningitis Meningitis - an inflammation of the meninges  Meningitis - an inflammation of the meninges
   is considered to be primary, it occurs especially hard.


What happens in the body of the patient at pneumococcal disease

With the introduction of the pneumococcus to the respiratory tract or upper respiratory organs develop primary inflammatory focus - bronchitis Bronchitis - protection if the body has malfunctioned  Bronchitis - protection if the body has malfunctioned
 , Pneumonia, sinusitis, otitis media and so on, where the infection infectious agents spread through the blood to other organs and tissues. Most often infection with misses the meninges with the development of meningoencephalitis and meningitis (inflammation of the membranes and brain tissue).


The symptoms of pneumococcal meningitis

Primary pneumococcal meningitis is almost always begins acutely, with the rise of high fever, chills, rapid growth of the symptoms of intoxication. There is a strong, growing in intensity, headache, vomiting. Young children often vomiting fountain, which is difficult to stop - it causes dehydration of the child.

No less characteristic symptom is the increased skin sensitivity, photophobia and fear of loud noises, which also appear in the first days of illness. Meningeal symptoms appear on the first or second day, manifested in a characteristic pose meningeal patient: head thrown back, the body is stretched, stomach in, his hands pressed to the chest and knees to the stomach. Such a person can not press your chin to your chest because of numb neck.

In infants develop early increased intracranial pressure - which is a symptom of a bulging fontanelle pulsing. The child is pale, fingertips and lips have a bluish tint, a significant shortness of breath.

Almost always joined expressed cerebral symptoms and signs of focal brain lesions, which indicates the defeat of brain tissue - meningoencephalitis. Focal symptoms appear already on the first - the second day of the disease in the form of paresis or paralysis of limbs, gait disturbances, lesions of cranial nerves. Most often affects the facial and oculomotor cranial nerves, which manifests itself in the form of facial asymmetry and strabismus.

Characteristically rapid increase in edema and swelling of the brain - it can cause the death of the child in the first three days of illness.

Secondary pneumococcal meningitis that develops against the backdrop of the existing primary focus of inflammation (bronchitis, pneumonia, purulent inflammation of the upper respiratory tract) begins not as acute symptoms initially are not expressed in nature, but their intensity increases, so the illness is not less difficult.

Perhaps the appearance of the skin of various nature (hemorrhagic, maculopapular, and so on), rash, especially in septic course of the disease.

For pneumococcal meningitis is characterized by frequent relapses. Each quad-fifth child who has had his left neurological complications in the form of paresis, paralysis, deafness, blindness, impaired memory, and so on.


Diagnosis and treatment

The diagnosis is confirmed by detection in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), the causative agent. Liquor flows under pressure, cloudy, yellowish-green hue, revealed neutrophilic pleocytosis (an increase in the number of cells in the cerebrospinal fluid with a predominance of one type of white blood cells - neutrophils, that is typical for bacterial infections), increased protein and reduced glucose Glucose: The energy source  Glucose: The energy source

Treatment of pneumococcal meningitis is the same as the treatment of other bacterial meningitis.

Galina Romanenko

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  • types of meningitis

Signs of nerve pinching everyone should know - forewarned is forearmed

August 1, 2012

 signs of a pinched nerve
 Nerves envelop our body as a conductor, innerviruya all organs and tissues. And if such transactions for whatever reason, ceases to function properly or breaks, disturbed function of the organ or muscle, to which it is suitable (innervates). A lot of nerves, so signs of a pinched nerve diverse.

 Signs of nerve pinching everyone should know - forewarned is forearmed

What is a pinched nerve, and why it could happen

Entrapment (doctors call it an infringement) nerve often occurs against such diseases as osteochondrosis Osteochondrosis - Causes and symptoms  Osteochondrosis - Causes and symptoms
 . This metabolic disorders in the spine lead to the destruction of intervertebral discs in the beginning, and then the vertebrae. Such violations will sooner or later cause a pinched spinal nerve roots directly in the place of their exit from the spine.

Depending on the level at which the spine was injured spine, distinguish cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sciatica.

Pinched nerve may also be caused by trauma to the nerve in the fracture or dislocation Dislocation - Prevention and Treatment  Dislocation - Prevention and Treatment
 . In addition, the nerve can become pinched in certain types of permanent microtraumas growing tumor and others.

 Signs of nerve pinching everyone should know - forewarned is forearmed

Neck Area

Entrapment of spinal nerves of the cervical spine often shows not only the pain but also other serious disorders. Pinched nerve in different cervical vertebrae manifest different motor or sensory disorders. For example, the pinching of the spinal nerve exiting the first cervical vertebra, leads to disruption of feeling in the occipital region. A pinched nerve in the area of ​​the second cervical vertebra causes pain in the top of the head and neck, in the third - a strong one-sided and unilateral reduction in pain sensitivity on the side of destruction, as well as violation of the sensitivity of the language. A pinched nerve in the area of ​​the fourth cervical vertebra - a decrease in pain and sensitivity in the upper third of the clavicle and shoulder, violation of motor activity of the muscles of the head and neck, sometimes - disordered breathing and pain in the heart and liver.

Entrapment of spinal nerve that goes from the fifth cervical vertebra, manifested by pain in the upper and outer surface of the shoulder, muscle weakness, impaired sensation on the outer surface of the shoulder, and from the sixth - pain extending from the spine to the shoulder blade, the outer surface of the arm and forearm, thumb . A pinched nerve in the seventh cervical vertebra causes pain in the neck, shoulder blades, back of the shoulder and forearm, fingers (except the thumb and little finger), in the eighth - a pain in the direction from the neck to the little finger.

In most of the vertebrae of the cervical spine has a small hole through which the vertebral artery. This artery is directed to the brain when it is squeezed brain tissue suffers from a lack of nutrients and oxygen in particular. The symptom is severe throbbing (vascular) headaches, dizziness, loss of coordination, impaired. If the background of the compression of the vertebral artery vasospasm occurs brain, it leads to the development of ischemic stroke.

 Signs of nerve pinching everyone should know - forewarned is forearmed


Most often, such a jamming appears intercostal neuralgia Neuralgia - the scourge of the elderly  Neuralgia - the scourge of the elderly
   - The emergence of strong paroxysmal pain along the intercostal nerve, worse from the slightest movement. Sometimes, there are constant pain, but from the movement they are still worse. All the pain worse because of muscle spasm of the chest.

Most patients have a feeling that they have a pain in my heart Pain in the heart - always consult a doctor  Pain in the heart - always consult a doctor
   or in the stomach, but it is not true pain - pain "falls" into the internal organs through the branches of nerves coming from the spinal nerves.

 Signs of nerve pinching everyone should know - forewarned is forearmed

Lumbosacral region

Entrapment of spinal nerves of the lumbosacral spine is the most common, because it is on the lower back is the biggest load, especially if a person has excess weight.

A pinched nerve in the lumbar spine has special characteristics and is known as lumbago or lumbalgia. The main symptom is the sudden appearance of lumbodynia very strong pain in the lumbar region and the entire back. Often such pain causes the patient to remain in a position in which it is found fit, as there comes a sharp protective muscle spasm. And as the direct cause of the attack is often awkward movement or tilting of the body, then forced position can be very uncomfortable.

Lumbodynia attack can last from five to ten minutes to several days, he passes as suddenly as it starts. The attacks are not repeated or longer at all or repeated from time to time (which happens often).

Entrapment of the sciatic nerve (it is a continuation of the nerves extending from the lumbar and sacral spine), there are pains in the buttocks, which are distributed on the back of the thigh. In addition, there is muscle weakness and impaired motor function of the lower limb.

Symptoms of a pinched nerve need to know everything in order in time to seek medical help.

Galina Romanenko

Article Tags:
  • pinched nerve