The trigeminal nerve and its defeat: what happens in the body?

November 12, 2009

 Trigeminal nerve
   All those who, though once there is pain along the trigeminal nerve, know that this is the most severe pain, are very difficult to remove. Such pains are talking about the defeat of sensory fibers of the trigeminal nerve. But as part of the trigeminal nerve is and motor fibers, which also may be affected.

 The trigeminal nerve and its defeat: what happens in the body?

How does the trigeminal nerve

As part of the trigeminal nerve has both sensory and motor nerve fibers. It originates in the brain, where three of his sensitive nucleus and one motor. Cores - a cluster of nerve cells. Scion motor nucleus make up the spine of the motor, which delivers information from the brain to the muscles.

Large accumulations of nerve cells is a large trigeminal node located in the sensitive spine. From his nerves go from one side to the center, to the sensitive nuclei of the brain, and on the other - to the periphery of three major branches of the trigeminal nerve: orbital, maxillary and mandibular nerves. The motor root of the trigeminal nerve passes under the trigeminal node and woven into the third, the lower branch.

The optic nerve is the upper branch of the trigeminal nerve. He leaves the cranial cavity through the eye socket and the nerve is divided into three:

  • frontal nerve - supplies the skin of the upper part of the face;
  • lacrimal nerve - supplies the lacrimal gland and partially eyes;
  • nosoresnichny nerve - supplies the part of the nasal cavity and part of the eye.

The maxillary nerve (middle branch) leaves the skull and has called supraorbital nerve, it is divided into many branches that innervate the skin of the lower eyelid, the side wall of the nose and upper lip. From this nerve depart zygomatic nerve to the skin and the temporal region, and nerves to the upper teeth and gums.

Mandibular nerve (lower branch) - is a mixed nerve, it is both sensitive and motor nerves. The motor branch of the nerve innervate the muscles of the lower jaw, and sensitive - the entire lower third of the face. Also sensitive branch carried sensations of taste, touch, pain and temperature sensitivity.

 The trigeminal nerve and its defeat: what happens in the body?

Trigeminal nerve - sensory disturbances

The nature of sensory disturbances in various diseases and injuries of the trigeminal nerve is directly dependent on the level at which it was defeated. If damage has occurred at the level of the node and the trigeminal sensory nerves, such a type of lesion called peripheral, if the level of sensory nuclei located in the brain, the central or segmental.

Peripheral type of lesion of the trigeminal nerve manifests itself as severe pain and sensory disturbances along the affected branch of the trigeminal nerve. When the central type there is loss of sensitivity at different parts of the face.

Pain along the trigeminal nerve is called trigeminal neuralgia Neuralgia - the scourge of the elderly  Neuralgia - the scourge of the elderly
   or painful tic. It can be extremely severe and occur in the form of sudden attacks of severe, electric shock-like pain in the innervation of one or more branches of the trigeminal nerve.

 The trigeminal nerve and its defeat: what happens in the body?

Trigeminal nerve - motor disorders

Motility disorders of the trigeminal nerve may occur in pathological processes in the nucleus of the trigeminal nerve, which is located in the brain or motor branches.

The defeat in the motor branches of the trigeminal nerve leads to disturbance of the innervation of the masticatory muscles, a decrease in their volume and a change in facial contours on the affected side (if the lesion is unilateral). Outwardly, it looks like a retraction in the temple, and the angle of the mandible. When a patient opens his mouth or try to move the lower jaw, the latter moves towards paralysis - the result of the normal function of the muscles on the healthy side. If the motor branch of the trigeminal nerve are affected on both sides, the patient becomes impossible to chew, the lower jaw becomes fixed and droops under its own weight.

If it affects both sides of the motor nuclei located in the brain, there is a central paralysis of the masticatory muscles, which is not accompanied by a decrease in the amount of muscle. If the motor nucleus of the trigeminal nerve are affected on the one hand, the work of the masticatory muscles is not disturbed as a function taking the healthy nucleus situated in the other hemisphere.

Under certain toxic lesions of the trigeminal nerve (for example, botulism) can occur long spasm of the masticatory muscles or lockjaw. Thus the patient can not speak, chew and swallow due to the strong contraction of the jaw.

All of the trigeminal nerve disease require long-term thorough treatment, as accompanied or severe pain, or severe movement disorders.

Fezam and alcohol: you can not combine

July 8, 2012

 fezam alcohol
 Fezam - a drug that is actively working on the brain. The same can be said about alcohol. Combining them is not worth it, because fezam enhances the effect of alcohol, which can easily lead to an overdose. But for the treatment of patients with chronic alcoholism, the drug is fine.

 Fezam and alcohol: you can not combine

How do fezam and alcohol and the consequences of their combination

Fezam - a combination drug, it includes piracetam and cinnarizine. Piracetam has a slight stimulating effect on the central nervous system by boosting metabolism Metabolism: The basis of life of all living things  Metabolism: The basis of life of all living things
 . In some patients, this effect of piracetam causes insomnia. In Fezam activating effect of piracetam on the central nervous system is balanced cinnarizine, which has a sedative (calming) effect. The side effects of this drug have a sleep disorder Dreams: how to understand our dreams  Dreams: how to understand our dreams
 : Insomnia (the effect of piracetam) or drowsiness (effect of cinnarizine). Overall fezam has a calming effect, potentiates (increases) the effect of sedation drugs that depress the central nervous system, as well as alcohol and money, lowering blood pressure.

Alcohol blocks first and then amplifies the braking of the central nervous system. Therefore in the beginning of intoxication a person feels a surge of strength, before removing existing barriers - this explains the antics of drunken people. If a person continues to drink alcohol, then replace the increased activity and the fun comes lethargy and sleepiness - central nervous system depression. Blood pressure (BP) at the beginning of intoxication decreases as blood vessels dilate - the person feels a surge of heat. In the second step of intoxication increases blood pressure - there comes a persistent vasoconstriction.

In the first stages of intoxication danger phezam treatment and alcohol combination is that both of them contribute to the reduction of blood pressure, as a result of blood pressure may drop sharply, leading to collapse. Will there be a collapse at a particular patient depends on the individual characteristics and health status.

In the second stage there is a risk of intoxication too strong depression of the central nervous system, including the respiratory center, located in the brain. This can lead to respiratory arrest and death of the patient.

But even if nothing happened, alcohol nullify the entire treatment. After fezam Fezam - preparation for the restoration of brain functions  Fezam - preparation for the restoration of brain functions
   appointed to restore the function of the brain, and alcohol is a poison that selectively affects cells in the brain, that is, destroys the "work" to restore phezam treatment of central nervous system neurons.

 Fezam and alcohol: you can not combine

Neuropsychiatric disorders in chronic alcoholism

If alcoholism is always to some extent affected the central and peripheral nervous system. For the second stage of alcoholism is significantly affected intellectual and emotional-volitional, erased personality traits, reduced life activity - especially the creative possibilities. For the people of mental work long-term, intensive intellectual load becomes unbearable.

In the third stage of alcoholism appear marked degree of reduction of the intellect, reaching in some cases of dementia (dementia). Alcoholic dementia in their expressly covers all mental functions. Deeply disturbed ability to understand, greatly suffers memory, the patient is often confused in the reproduction of old events, even their personal lives.

Central nervous system is often manifested in the form of alcoholic encephalopathy, which may be acute (shown in the form of non-deployed psychoses with erased manifestations) and chronic. Chronic encephalopathy manifested mental (impaired memory, false memories, impaired orientation) and neurological disorders (neuritis limb muscle atrophy).

 Fezam and alcohol: you can not combine

Application phezam treatment of chronic alcoholism

Fezam used in the treatment of alcoholic encephalopathy, alcoholic dementia in the complex therapy. Fezam in this case, has beneficial effects on intelligence, thinking ability, relieves irritability Irritability - you try to control my temper  Irritability - you try to control my temper
 It improves sleep patients. This occurs due to the action of both components that are part of this drug. Thus, piracetam improves energy metabolism in the brain cells. It helps to activate all other types of metabolism. Tsinnorizin causes dilation of small blood vessels and blood flow to the brain tissue. Together with blood receives nutrients and oxygen.

As a result of such a double-acting neurons that have not yet died, can partially restore their properties.

Fezam help with alcoholism, but combine it with alcohol is not necessary.

Galina Romanenko

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