All those who, though once there is pain along the trigeminal nerve, know that this is the most severe pain, are very difficult to remove. Such pains are talking about the defeat of sensory fibers of the trigeminal nerve. But as part of the trigeminal nerve is and motor fibers, which also may be affected.
How does the trigeminal nerve
As part of the trigeminal nerve has both sensory and motor nerve fibers. It originates in the brain, where three of his sensitive nucleus and one motor. Cores - a cluster of nerve cells. Scion motor nucleus make up the spine of the motor, which delivers information from the brain to the muscles.
Large accumulations of nerve cells is a large trigeminal node located in the sensitive spine. From his nerves go from one side to the center, to the sensitive nuclei of the brain, and on the other - to the periphery of three major branches of the trigeminal nerve: orbital, maxillary and mandibular nerves. The motor root of the trigeminal nerve passes under the trigeminal node and woven into the third, the lower branch.
The optic nerve is the upper branch of the trigeminal nerve. He leaves the cranial cavity through the eye socket and the nerve is divided into three:
- frontal nerve - supplies the skin of the upper part of the face;
- lacrimal nerve - supplies the lacrimal gland and partially eyes;
- nosoresnichny nerve - supplies the part of the nasal cavity and part of the eye.
The maxillary nerve (middle branch) leaves the skull and has called supraorbital nerve, it is divided into many branches that innervate the skin of the lower eyelid, the side wall of the nose and upper lip. From this nerve depart zygomatic nerve to the skin and the temporal region, and nerves to the upper teeth and gums.
Mandibular nerve (lower branch) - is a mixed nerve, it is both sensitive and motor nerves. The motor branch of the nerve innervate the muscles of the lower jaw, and sensitive - the entire lower third of the face. Also sensitive branch carried sensations of taste, touch, pain and temperature sensitivity.
Trigeminal nerve - sensory disturbances
The nature of sensory disturbances in various diseases and injuries of the trigeminal nerve is directly dependent on the level at which it was defeated. If damage has occurred at the level of the node and the trigeminal sensory nerves, such a type of lesion called peripheral, if the level of sensory nuclei located in the brain, the central or segmental.
Peripheral type of lesion of the trigeminal nerve manifests itself as severe pain and sensory disturbances along the affected branch of the trigeminal nerve. When the central type there is loss of sensitivity at different parts of the face.
Pain along the trigeminal nerve is called trigeminal neuralgia
Neuralgia - the scourge of the elderly
or painful tic. It can be extremely severe and occur in the form of sudden attacks of severe, electric shock-like pain in the innervation of one or more branches of the trigeminal nerve.
Trigeminal nerve - motor disorders
Motility disorders of the trigeminal nerve may occur in pathological processes in the nucleus of the trigeminal nerve, which is located in the brain or motor branches.
The defeat in the motor branches of the trigeminal nerve leads to disturbance of the innervation of the masticatory muscles, a decrease in their volume and a change in facial contours on the affected side (if the lesion is unilateral). Outwardly, it looks like a retraction in the temple, and the angle of the mandible. When a patient opens his mouth or try to move the lower jaw, the latter moves towards paralysis - the result of the normal function of the muscles on the healthy side. If the motor branch of the trigeminal nerve are affected on both sides, the patient becomes impossible to chew, the lower jaw becomes fixed and droops under its own weight.
If it affects both sides of the motor nuclei located in the brain, there is a central paralysis of the masticatory muscles, which is not accompanied by a decrease in the amount of muscle. If the motor nucleus of the trigeminal nerve are affected on the one hand, the work of the masticatory muscles is not disturbed as a function taking the healthy nucleus situated in the other hemisphere.
Under certain toxic lesions of the trigeminal nerve (for example, botulism) can occur long spasm of the masticatory muscles or lockjaw. Thus the patient can not speak, chew and swallow due to the strong contraction of the jaw.
All of the trigeminal nerve disease require long-term thorough treatment, as accompanied or severe pain, or severe movement disorders.