Mental health care - will help force?
June 10, 2010
In Russia, psychiatric care is provided on the basis of neuropsychiatric dispensaries, whose task is to identify and treat patients with mental illness
Mental illness - ashamed to ask for help?
. In life, sometimes there are situations where you may need emergency psychiatric care - as it is always possible to bring to the patient.
General principles of mental health care
In Russia, there is a national system of mental health care, which includes the provision of emergency, outpatient, inpatient care and expertise of mentally ill people. Social security bodies are homes for people with disabilities (psychiatric nursing) for chronic patients, education authorities - and the boarding school for mentally retarded children and adolescents.
The provision of mental health care in the Soviet Union for a long time carried out without the support of the law, so often used in psychiatry punitive measures, including involuntary admission and treatment without good reason
. This undermined confidence in the mental health care
. And if the Western countries psychiatrist - is the best friend and constant counselor almost every family, we have people try to avoid this expert
. But time passes, today psychiatric care provided in accordance with the Law on psychiatric care and guarantees of citizens' rights in its provision (Federal Law 3185-1 of 02
. ) With the changes made to it over the last few years: 21
. 1998 N 117-FZ, dated 25
. 2002 N 116-FZ, dated 10
. 2003 N 15-FZ, dated 29
. 2004 N 58-FZ, dated 22
. 2004 N 122-FZ, the Resolution of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation from 27
. 2009 N 4-P
. The law clearly spelled out all the rules of psychiatric care and given a guarantee that this aid will be provided free to any citizen of our country
State guarantees: emergency, outpatient and inpatient mental health care, psychiatric examination, welfare assistance (including device, the disabled and the elderly), assistance in employment of persons with mental disorders, issues of guardianship, legal advice and other types of legal assistance, mental health care in the Disaster.
Along with the state of psychiatric care provision allowed non-state paid medical psychiatric care physicians and medical institutions that have received a license for the right to engage in this activity.
Provision of emergency psychiatric care
Emergency psychiatric care to citizens of Russia provided around the clock. Behind it is necessary to address, if a person suddenly appeared such symptoms: sudden excitement, anger, malice, aggression, or vice versa, confusion, inappropriate behavior, hallucinations, suicide attempts. Such conditions are dangerous not only for the patient but also to others, so patients need acute care.
Outpatient mental health care
For outpatient mental health care in Russia, a network of neuropsychiatric dispensaries (PND), where care is provided in the form of consultative and medical assistance or of follow-up.
Advisory and medical care is provided by a psychiatrist IPA at independent treatment of the patient, and in the case of a minor under the age of 15 years - at the request or with the consent of his parents or other legal representative.
Clinical supervision is also installed with the consent of the patient for regular monitoring of the patient, his treatment and social assistance. Without the consent of the patient can be put on a clinical account only in cases where the patient suffers from a chronic mental disorder with severe or persistent symptoms often exacerbated. The decision on arming or disarming dispensary Commission adopted psychiatrists.
All of their appointments with the psychiatrist agrees sick, or his representative and with the exception of those cases when the patient requires assistance to be sure, due to his health condition.
Psychiatric examination is conducted to determine whether the examinee is suffering from a mental disorder, if he needs psychiatric help and what kind. It is carried out at the request or with the consent of the subject or his legal representative, as well as by the decision of the guardianship authorities, which can be appealed in court. Psychiatric examination can be carried out without the consent of the subject or his legal representative in cases where the patient is at the dispensary, if the examinee performs dangerous actions, manifests helplessness or condition can deteriorate if left without psychiatric care.
Inpatient psychiatric care
Referral for treatment or examination at a psychiatric hospital conducted strictly voluntarily if the psychiatrist considers it necessary. Involuntary hospitalization is carried out only by a court decision, as well as in emergency situations, when leaving the patient without care can lead to serious consequences for him and others. If hospitalization of the child up to 15 years in the case of objections or absence of parents or other legal representatives hospitalization held by decision of the guardianship authority, which may be appealed in court.
Treatment in a psychiatric hospital and Policy Pay voluntarily except in cases when the patient requires emergency care or treatment ordered by the court.
Do not be afraid of the psychiatrist, he will be able to help in any case, even if the disease has gone away, and in that case, if it is not explicitly expressed.
Psychotropic drugs and their effect on the brain
December 29, 2013
Psychotropic drugs called capable of altering the levels of various chemicals in the brain and thus affect the psychological status and behavior; Due to this ability, they are used in the treatment of mental illness
Mental illness - ashamed to ask for help?
. Psychotropic drugs include many groups of substances.
Although the mechanism of action of antipsychotic drugs are still not well understood, most experts believe that they block dopamine receptors in the brain, which are extremely active in patients suffering from hallucinations, delusions
Brad - not only crazy
And other conditions typical for a number of mental disorders. They are used to treat schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, as well as irritability associated with autism. Currently, the most frequently used second-generation antipsychotics - they cause fewer side effects than the first generation antipsychotics, such as haloperidol.
Antipsychotics may affect the metabolism
Improves metabolism and losing weight without dieting
Often cause a slight increase in weight, and sometimes increase the risk of developing diabetes. Other side effects of antipsychotic drugs may be tremors, muscle spasms, anxiety and tardive dyskinesia - a chronic, sometimes - irreversible disorder in which a person observed involuntary movements of the arms, legs, tongue and lips. Although with the advent of second-generation antipsychotics tardive dyskinesia became rarer every year about 5% of patients taking these drugs develops this violation. The most commonly used antipsychotics such as aripiprazole, clozapine, Risperdal, Seroquel, Solian.
Antidepressants also apply to psychotropic drugs. They are used to treat various types of depression, which suffers from 7% to 8% of the population. Approximately one-third of them are diagnosed with severe depression.
Today, the most commonly used class of antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors - a relatively new kind of antidepressants; this group of drugs act on serotonin levels in the brain. Other anti-depressants affect the levels of norepinephrine and dopamine - all of these substances affect the psychological state of man. The most common antidepressants such as Effexor, Paxil, Prozac, bupropion.
Preparations for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
Most of these psychotropic drugs affects the level of dopamine - a substance which is associated with pleasure and attention. The most common side effects of drugs of this type are problems with sleep and poor appetite. These medications include Ritalin, Adderall (which is composed of amphetamine and dextroamphetamine), methylphenidate and others.
Anxiolytics - a psychotropic medications have a calming effect; often referred to as tranquilizers, although in reality the group tranquilizers anxiolytics include not only, but also other types of drugs, including neuroleptics. As a rule, anxiolytics can prescribe in generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, social phobia and post-traumatic stress disorder. Because of the risk of addiction treatment is usually short. Side effects of anxiolytics can also be drowsiness, blurred vision, and sleep problems, including nightmares. Anxiolytics are Lorazepam, Xanax, Klonopin.
Mood stabilizers or mood stabilizers, usually used to treat bipolar disorder, which affects, it is estimated that 3% of the population. The drug of first choice for this disorder is lithium. In addition it can be used Depakote, lamotrigine, carbamazepine. Mood stabilizers can cause side effects such as thyroid problems, weight gain, and suicidal thoughts.
Opiates and hallucinogens
Opiates - a derivative of opium poppy, from which the as drugs, and drugs that are quite legally sold in pharmacies. Opiates include morphine, codeine, methadone, heroin, and others. Prescription opioids are usually prescribed to relieve severe pain, which can not cope with other analgesics. Depending on the dose of opioids may cause more or less strong pleasure then usually occurs stupor. In addition, their side effects can be nausea, constipation, slow breathing, and an overdose - respiratory arrest. Finally, opioids are addictive, so for therapeutic purposes can be taken only for a short time.
Hallucinogens such as diethylamide of d-lysergic acid (LSD), mescaline, psilocybin is not highly addictive, but their impact on the psyche can be dangerous, especially for people who already have mild mental disorders.
Central nervous system stimulants
This group includes some psychotropic substances for the treatment of attention deficit disorder and hyperactivity, as well as nicotine, cocaine, caffeine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (commonly known as Ecstasy). These substances are to some extent inhibit appetite, improve blood pressure, increased heart rate, increased blood sugar
Blood sugar - one of the main indicators of human health