Tuberculosis of the mouth - a low percentage of incidence

April 10, 2014

 tuberculosis oral
 Tuberculosis of the mouth belongs to the species of extrapulmonary tuberculosis Extrapulmonary tuberculosis - many forms  Extrapulmonary tuberculosis - many forms
 . In most cases, TB affects the lungs; Only 10-15% of the patients it affects other organs, mainly - the intestine, meninges, bones, joints, lymph nodes and skin. Tuberculosis of the mouth occurs, according to various estimates, from 0.5-5% of the total number of patients with tuberculosis.

The low incidence of this kind of tuberculosis, probably due to the fact that in the squamous epithelium of the oral cavity provides very effective protection against infections. The mechanism of oral tuberculosis is not completely clear, but it is assumed that bacillus contained in the saliva to penetrate into the mucous membrane via small lesions in the oral cavity, resulting in an chronic irritation or inflammation. The development of tuberculosis of the mouth may contribute to factors such as poor hygiene, injury, removal of teeth, jaw fractures, cysts and abscesses.

Because the increased risk of oral tuberculosis is associated with the removal of some teeth and other dental operations, it is logical to assume that there is a risk of contracting the disease at a reception at the dentist. In fact, the probability of this is very low, particularly in developed countries where the organizations are strictly monitored to ensure that hospitals are respected in infection control. Despite this cases of tuberculosis infection of the oral cavity in patients of dental clinics were noted repeatedly. All these patients were treated at the dentists, patients with pulmonary tuberculosis - apparently, doctors and become a source of infection.



Primary tuberculosis in most cases is localized in the lungs. In most patients the infection does not spread to other organs. Primary tuberculosis of the oral mucosa is very rare, usually in children or adults with very weak immune system. It commonly affects the gums, and is associated with local lymphadenopathy. Secondary tuberculosis is found in the mouth of all ages, but most often - in middle-aged and elderly. The majority of patients with this disorder in the mouth ulcers are formed, most of all - in the language, at least - on the mucous membrane of the mouth and lips.

In some cases, ulcers formed on the salivary glands and tonsils. In addition to ulcers in the oral cavity can occur tubercles, erosion and granulomas. They can be single or multiple, painful or painless. Along with these symptoms patients may experience typical symptoms of TB - cough, expectoration, chest pain Chest pain is one symptom - a lot of diseases  Chest pain is one symptom - a lot of diseases
 , Fever, chills, weakness.



Diagnosing TB Tuberculosis - a full recovery is not guaranteed  Tuberculosis - a full recovery is not guaranteed
   oral mucosa can be difficult because its symptoms are similar to symptoms of other disorders, including - cancer, HIV, cicatricial pemphigoid, syphilis, histoplasmosis, Wegener's granulomatosis and sarcoidosis Sarcoidosis - how to protect themselves?  Sarcoidosis - how to protect themselves?
 . For the diagnosis of this species of tuberculosis can be used tuberculin skin test (Mantoux test), blood and sputum, as well as a biopsy. With the biopsy, in particular, we see that the tumors in the oral cavity caused by tuberculosis indeed, not cancer.



Treatment of tuberculosis mouth usually not different from the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis .  Typically, the treatment is applied three drugs - rifampicin, isoniazid and pyrazinamide .  In the first two months usually take all three drugs, and then, for another four months - only to isoniazid and rifampicin .  If there is a likelihood of bacterial drug resistance to isoniazid, can be assigned to a fourth drug - ethambutol .  Side effects of anti-TB drugs may be weakness and fatigue, nausea, vomiting, anorexia, abdominal pain, dark urine, numbness or tingling in the hands and feet, seizures, blurred vision, menstrual disorders, shortness of breath, swelling, muscle weakness .  In most patients, there are some of these side effects, they are mild and do not cause significant discomfort .  However, if any of these symptoms persist for a long time or quickly amplified, you must inform your doctor .

Patients with signs of nutritional deficiency in addition to drug therapy must be full and varied diet - without this recovery of the body impossible.

Article Tags:
  • types of tuberculosis

Than to treat stomatitis in adults - a technique depends on the cause

December 6th, 2014

 than to treat stomatitis in adults
 The treat stomatitis adults in each case best tell the dentist since the cause (and therefore the treatment) stomatitis may be different. The pharmacy today you can buy drugs for general and local treatment of stomatitis. But the problem is that the same drug is not suitable for everyone.


The cure stomatitis adults

For the treatment of stomatitis Treatment of periodontal disease: thinning is not Hollywood smile!  Treatment of periodontal disease: thinning is not Hollywood smile!
   adult antiseptic solutions used for rinsing the mouth, antiviral, antibacterial and antifungal agents general (systemic) and local action, as well as gels, relieves pain, inflammation and promoting regeneration of mucosa.

Not least in the treatment of stomatitis adults take immune-boosting drugs general and local action as chronic stomatitis often develop on the background of reduced immunity Immunity - types and characteristics in children in adults  Immunity - types and characteristics in children in adults

There are several universal preparations which can be used in any form stomatitis.


Antiseptic solution for rinsing miramistin

Miramistin - a broad spectrum antiseptic for topical and local application. Under the action occurs miramistina membrane disruption (and hence cells) pathogens. In dental practice, a 0, 01% solution miramistina.

The drug has a high antibacterial activity, significantly higher than the activity yodovidona, iodinol, furatsilina, chlorhexidine antiseptic nitrofuran. Chu4vstvitelnost to it shows most of the bacteria found in the oral cavity (staphylococcus, streptococcus, E. coli) and can cause stomatitis.

It also exhibits high antiviral activity against herpes viruses, which are often the cause of stomatitis. It is also known antifungal activity miramistina - it shows high activity against fungi genus Candida - «perpetrators» of oral thrush.

In addition, miramistin promotes regeneration of the oral mucosa and has no allergenic properties. With simultaneous use of antibiotics and miramistina Antibiotics - whether they will help you in the foreseeable future?  Antibiotics - whether they will help you in the foreseeable future?
   decreased resistance (resistance to) microorganisms to the latter.

In dentistry, 0, 01% solution miramistina used for rinsing the mouth with all kinds of stomatitis Stomatitis - to breath fresh  Stomatitis - to breath fresh
 . He is particularly recommended for mixed bacterial and fungal infections before the identification of pathogens.

Rinsing is carried out 4-6 times a day for 7-10 days. The drug has no side effects and is approved for use in pregnant women. In its application only occasionally may be a slight burning sensation in the mouth, which takes place on their own after a few seconds and does not require discontinuation of therapy.


Dental gel Holisal

This combined drug for local use in the dental practice. Active ingredient Holisal are choline salicylate + tsetalkoniya chloride. Excipients: gietelloza, methyl parahydroxybenzoate, propilparagidroksibenzoa, glycerol, anise seed oil, ethanol, water.

When applied to the oral mucosa active substance choline salicylate is rapidly absorbed, providing a local anesthetic, anti-inflammatory and mild antiseptic (antibacterial and antifungal) effects. Other active substance tsetalkoniya chloride has antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral effects.

The gel formulation provides the basis of the rapid development of long-term therapeutic effect and keeps the mucous membrane of the active compound. Analgesic effect occurs within three minutes and lasts from 2 to 8 hours. The drug is non-toxic, is a contraindication to the use of only hypersensitivity to its components.

Apply gel Holisal 2-3 times a day. To analgesia can be used before a meal. If pain is not expressed, it is best to apply gel after a meal and at bedtime. A strip 1 cm of gel is extruded onto a clean finger and rub with light massaging movements in the affected area of ​​the oral mucosa.


Lozenges laripront

Combined preparation with an antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, anti-inflammatory action for local application. Active ingredient - dequalinium chloride and lysozyme hydrochloride.

Lysozyme - natural enzyme which forms a complex with the virus and prevent their penetration into cells, and also possesses antibacterial activity due to the destruction of the cell wall of microorganisms. Also it has anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effect by blocking histamine.

Dequalinium chloride - an antiseptic with antibacterial and antifungal activity. In addition, it reduces the surface tension of the tissues, allowing penetration of other active ingredients into the deeper layers of the mucosa.

Apply laripront in all types of stomatitis one tablet every 2-3 hours, the tablets held in the mouth to complete resorption. After resorption tablets should refrain from taking food or liquid for 30 minutes.

Galina Romanenko

Article Tags:
  • stomatitis