Vaccination against human papilloma virus - the purpose and need for vaccination - Questions and answers

July 4, 2014

  • Vaccination against human papilloma virus - the purpose and need for vaccination
  • Questions and answers

 HPV and vaccination

Papillomavirus vaccination and FAQs

  • What types of cancer are associated with infection papillomirusnoy?

Human papillomavirus is now considered the main cause of cervical cancer Cervical cancer: possible cure  Cervical cancer: possible cure
 . But while most women eventually become infected with the virus, only a small part of developing this type of cancer. Most of the women's immune systems successfully suppress the activity of human papillomavirus. Human papillomavirus is also associated with the development of cancer of the anus, oropharynx, vulva, vagina and penis.

  • There are other means besides vaccination to protect against HPV?

The most reliable way to prevent HPV infection is to abstain. In couples where partners are faithful to each other, and provided that the earlier they had few sexual partners, the chance of infection is below average, but it is not excluded completely.

Regular and proper use of condoms reduces the likelihood of infection, but HPV can be transmitted not only through the genitals, so such protection can not be considered very reliable. Therefore, the most effective against this virus vaccines are considered - Gardasil and Cervarix.

  • What Gardasil and Cervarix?

Gardasil is called a quadrivalent vaccine because it protects against four types of HPV - 6, 11, 16 and 18. Gardasil is administered intramuscularly, three doses, for six months.

Cervarix - a bivalent vaccine against HPV Papilloma - do not treat lightly  Papilloma - do not treat lightly
   Human protecting against the two virus types - 16 and 18. It also administered as Gardasil.

Until it has been proved that the vaccine protects against infection by other species of the virus, but the results of preliminary studies have shown that they can provide partial protection against some types of HPV other, which can also cause cervical cancer. In general, the vaccine can prevent about 70% of cases this type of cancer.

  • How does the vaccine?

Vaccination against human papilloma virus acts much the same as vaccinations that protect against other viral infections. During the development, scientists have suggested that the unique surface proteins of HPV can cause an antibody response capable of providing body protection from infections, and that these components can be the basis for a vaccine.

It turned out that viral surface proteins can interact with each other and form virus-like particles which do not lead to infection because they lack DNA. But the particles can attach to the cells and stimulate the immune system The immune system - how it works?  The immune system - how it works?
 , Causing it to produce antibodies Antibodies - "soldiers' immunity  Antibodies - "soldiers' immunity
 That in the future, in case of contact with this organism papillovirusom human prevent its penetration into cells.

  • How effective vaccination against human papillomavirus?

Gardasil and Cervarix are very securely to prevent virus propagation, protection which they are intended. At the moment, it found that they were protected from infection for eight years - so much last observation of the patients who took part in the very first clinical trials of the vaccine.

According to currently available data, the vaccine provides almost one hundred percent protection against precancerous changes in the cells of the cervix caused by HPV 16 and 18.

As we have said, Garadsil and Cervarix should be administered to patients three times at regular intervals. However, recent studies have shown that women who for some reason did only two injections of Cervarix, are no less reliable protected against papillomavirus types 16 and 18, than those who took a full course of vaccination. There are substantial grounds to believe that even one dose can prevent infection, but it is unclear how effective this protection. It is not planned to reduce the rate of vaccination, but these results can serve as yet another confirmation of the high efficacy of the vaccine.

  • Is it possible to vaccinate those already infected with human papillomavirus?

Although Gardasil and Cervarix are considered safe for infected HPV, the vaccine does not treat papillomavirus infection, so it is really effective only for those who are not yet infected. Scientists suggest that vaccination may be useful to some infected; For example, if a patient infected with HPV 16, they can protect it from virus type 18. However, the possibility of vaccination already infected patients still being studied.

Another problem is that there are currently no tests that could show if a person has ever infected with the human papilloma virus. As used today, the test for HPV DNA shows only active human papillomavirus infection and determine the type of virus, but can not use it to determine the patient had such infections in the past. Since the benefits from such a test a little, all the people who are already sexually active, are considered potentially contaminated human papillomavirus, vaccines and they usually do not.

  • Can I get vaccinated women who have already demonstrated the changes of cervical cells?

If the patient found these cellular changes, but it is in the age group in which more it makes sense to vaccinate against HPV, the doctor may recommend it vaccinated. This is due to the assumption that the vaccine can protect women against human papillomavirus high carcinogenic risk, which it is not yet infected. However, at the same time, the patient should be aware that the vaccine will not cure available to them at the moment of the disease, are associated with the virus, and in the future they will need to be screened regularly by a doctor.

  • It allowed the vaccination of pregnant women?

HPV vaccine is not recommended for pregnant women. However, studies have shown that it can do any harm to the health of the mother or the child, so if you are, without knowing it, was vaccinated against HPV when they were pregnant, it is not the reason for termination of pregnancy. However, if a woman knows she is pregnant, she should inform your doctor, who administered the vaccine, and the following doses of the vaccine it will be introduced only after the birth.

  • What if the woman knew what she was vaccinated against HPV when she was pregnant?

In such cases, you should simply inform your doctor. Most likely, it will have no effect on pregnancy and the patient does not require further examination.

Article Tags:
  • papilloma

Rotavirus: the prognosis is favorable - The incubation period

June 22, 2013

  • Rotavirus: favorable prognosis
  • Signs
  • Symptoms
  • incubation period
  • Diagnostics
  • Treatment
  • Gestation
  • Lactation
  • Prevention
  • Vaccine

 The incubation period of rotavirus infection

incubation period

When a person becomes infected with rotavirus, the virus enters the small intestine, where they begin to multiply rapidly. At the end of about two days after infection with rotavirus first symptoms of rotavirus infection. The period between infection with rotavirus organism and appearance of the first symptoms of infection is called the incubation period of rotavirus infection.

 The incubation period | Rotavirus: favorable prognosis

The incubation period and a danger to others

You should not mistakenly believe that if there are no symptoms of rotavirus infection, a person can not infect others. In fact, even during the incubation period Rotavirus Rotavirus there is a risk of transmission, even though symptoms of the infection has not yet emerged. Once the symptoms of rotavirus infection have disappeared (for example, resulted in diarrhea Diarrhea (diarrhea) - a familiar nuisance  Diarrhea (diarrhea) - a familiar nuisance
   and nausea), a person is no longer able to infect others with rotavirus. In some cases, however, the risk of infecting others is maintained for ten to fourteen days after full recovery. Children often remain contagious for much longer than adults to recover from rotavirus infection.

Especially difficult diagnosis of rotavirus infection in the incubation period, and the period of the disease is because not all people infected with rotavirus, there are distinct signs. Most of the acute symptoms of rotavirus infection affects infants and young children, in adults the disease usually occurs much softer. Among the most common symptoms that appear after an incubation period of rotavirus infection include:

  • Nausea, vomiting
  • Diarrhea, watery stools
  • Dehydration
  • Very high temperature
  • Loss of appetite
  • Mucus in the stool
  • Stomach ache