- Kidney stones: identify and treat
- Symptoms of the disease
- Why are formed
Types of kidney stones
This type includes approximately four out of five kidney stones. They generally consist of calcium oxalate, calcium and / or a combination of calcium and phosphate. Prevention of kidney stones necessarily involves dietary restrictions - the need to point out that the data of numerous investigations.
Animal protein has traditionally been considered one of the main reasons for the formation of calcium stones, although some researchers were unable to identify the difference between the risk of developing kidney stones related to the consumption of animal and vegetable protein. Whatever it was, the residents of many developed countries now consume significantly more animal protein than necessary (the average American, for example, more than the RDA in as much as two-fold), so it makes sense to replace at least some of these vegetable proteins. Such proteins are found, for example, a tofu, beans, lentils, whole grains. However, some foods containing vegetable proteins, too, should be used with caution, because in their composition may contain other substances potentially harmful in urolithiasis.
Patients with increased risk of calcium stones, is also recommended to reduce sodium intake to 2000-3000 per day. The main source of sodium in the diet of most modern people is a salt, but it is also used as a preservative and a flavor enhancer in a variety of canned foods, frozen foods, sausages, and so on. To reduce the amount of sodium in the diet, it is recommended, when possible, prepare meals, as little as possible to use for this product, precooked and as often as possible - fresh or frozen vegetables. Add salt only ready-made meals. When you eat in a cafe or restaurant, ask if it is possible, do not salt your meals.
Care should be taken so that the intake of vitamin C does not exceed 2,000 mg per day - in large doses, it increases the probability of the formation of kidney stones. As a rule, exceed the dose can only people who take supplements with vitamin C, so if you take them urolithiasis is usually not recommended.
Doctors are advised to limit consumption of foods rich in oxalate, such as chocolate, beets, coffee, cola, nuts, rhubarb, spinach, black tea and wheat bran.
Recent studies have shown that obesity also increases the risk of kidney stone disease. Weight loss can help prevent not only that, but also many other diseases.
Previously it was thought that in order to patients not formed calcium kidney stones, it is necessary to reduce the intake of calcium. This assumption sounds logical, but it is incorrect. Studies have shown that people who consume less than 850 mg of calcium a day, kidney stones form more than the average.
The daily rate of calcium for adults aged 14 to 18 years of age is 1,300 mg, ё8 to 50 years - 1,000 mg, over 51 years - 1200 mg. Patients with urolithiasis
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(and not only them), you must ensure that their daily calcium intake was not significantly lower than the norm.
Another important prerequisite for the prevention of calcium stones is to drink plenty. Patients are advised to consume as much of the liquid to the amount allocated for the day amounted to about 1.9l of urine (usually its volume is approximately 1.4 l). A few tips to increase the volume of fluid intake:
- Drink a glass of water before and after each meal;
- Be sure to wash down the food with water or juice;
- Carry a bottle of water and drink regularly during walks, shopping, in training, and so on;
- How can often eat food with a high percentage of moisture content - soups, fruits, vegetables, and so on;
- Minimize consumption of alcohol - it causes dehydration.
Stones from the salt of uric acid or urate stones
The formation of kidney stones from uric acid salts associated with excessive intake of purines and acidity of urine. To reduce the likelihood of formation of stones of this type, it is necessary, first of all, to reduce the consumption of purine-rich foods such as liver, anchovies, sardines, herring, mackerel, red meat, tofu, legumes. Spirits can also increase the probability of occurrence of uric acid kidney stones. Dairy products, in contrast, reduces the risk of their formation, as they may reduce the concentration of uric acid in urine.
The phosphate kidney stones
Patients who have previously been identified kidney stones of this type, it is recommended to use as little fish, dairy products, potatoes, smoked, sweet fruits and berries, chocolate. For them useful eggs, lean meat, sour fruits and berries, various crops.
Oxalate kidney stones
When oxalate stones should avoid the following foods high in oxalates: black tea, cocoa, coffee, soy milk, soy yogurt, cheese, nuts, wheat bran, blackberries, blueberries
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, Raspberries, tangerines, carrots, beets, parsley
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, Eggplant, peppers, spinach, zucchini.
It is recommended to use the food with a low concentration of oxalates, for example, dairy products, vegetable oils, avocado, banana
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, Grapes, grapefruit, cabbage, cucumbers, mushrooms.
Staghorn kidney stones
Unfortunately, it is not known as much as possible - and if at all possible - to prevent the formation of stones of this type. Typically, they are formed as a result of infectious diseases or urinary problems; whether their occurrence is associated with power, is unclear. Coral kidney stones, as they are sometimes mistakenly referred to, can cause severe complications and can be avoided if in time to see a doctor. The reason for seeking medical help are any - even weak - pain during urination, back pain, difficulty urinating.