Immunity newborns in the early stages of life is called passive because the body does not produce antibodies, and gets them ready-made. Such immunity is necessary to protect the child from various diseases.
During pregnancy, the expectant mother "shares" his antibodies (immunoglobulins) with a child - they come from a mother's bloodstream through the placenta to the fetus. These antibodies are a critical part of the immune system of the fetus. As an adult, they identify and bind penetrating into the body hazardous elements, such as bacteria, viruses and fungi. This process serves as a signal to other cells of the immune system that are destroying foreign microorganisms.
Immunoglobulin G - the only class of antibodies that cross the placenta and enter the body of the fetus during pregnancy. These are the smallest and most numerous antibodies - they constitute 75-80% of all antibodies in humans. They are present in all body fluids, and are considered the most important to protect the antibodies against bacteria and viruses. Immunoglobulins are also helping to protect the fetus from infections from the beginning of intrauterine development.
Immediately after the birth of a newborn in the blood very high level of maternal antibody. Newborns who are breastfed, continue to receive antibodies through breast milk. It contains all five types of immunoglobulin - immunoglobulins A, D, E, G and M.
Over the next few weeks the baby from the mother gets fewer antibodies. When a healthy child is two or three months, the immune system starts to produce antibodies itself. At that time antibody levels in the blood decreases naturally because of their mother comes smaller, and the child's body is produces immunoglobulins in much smaller amounts than adults. By six months of normal newborn's immune system produces enough antibodies have to protect the body on their own.
Breastfeeding and Newborn immunity
Numerous studies have shown that infants who are breastfed, the probability of infection (especially lung and ear infections, and infectious diseases that cause diarrhea) in the first year of life is lower than that of children who are fed with formula milk. This is due to the fact that breast milk contains antibodies, enzymes, fats, and proteins that help strengthen the immune system of the newborn. Although the infant formulas
Dairy mixture - selection of useful power
there are all the most important for the development of the child the nutrients, their composition is still much different from the composition of breast milk. In particular, they have no antibodies and the child's body to digest them harder than mother's milk.
In normal gastric acid cleaves immunoglobulins if they fall into the stomach. However, contained in breast milk antibodies have special protection, which allows them to penetrate into the intestine, and then absorbed into the bloodstream. After that they can carry out their normal protective function.
Through breast milk baby receives mainly immunoglobulin A. It is found in the nasal cavity, respiratory tract, digestive tract, tears, saliva, and vaginal environment. Immunoglobulin A protects the surface of the body that are frequently exposed to foreign microorganisms from penetrating inside. The concentration of other immunoglobulins in breast milk is considerably lower than the immunoglobulin A.
In addition to immunoglobulins in breast milk contains lysozyme - an enzyme that helps fight immunoglobulin A certain pathogens.
Oligosaccharides - another component of breast milk - prevent the proliferation of pathogenic bacteria, restraining the development of infections. They bind to the bacteria, forming compounds that are excreted from the body of the child along with the waste products.
Lipids Milk damage the outer surface of some viruses. As a result, the virus loses the ability to replicate and cause infection in the newborn.
Lactoferrin - contained in human milk protein, binds to iron and prevents bacteria consume the substance. Iron is essential for the survival of bacteria, lactoferrin and thus depriving them of food, also is involved in the protection against diseases of the newborn.
The composition of breast milk enters another protein - mucin. It attaches to bacteria and viruses that enter the body of the child, and then the other cells of the immune system destroy potentially dangerous "aliens." Two proteins - interferon and fibronectin - also help break down the child's body in the penetrating viruses.
Because the immune system of newborns is not fully developed, they are more susceptible to various diseases than adults, even with passive immunity, which they get from the mother. In order to strengthen the already existing protection, young children are vaccinated against certain diseases, such as diphtheria, tetanus, hepatitis B, whooping cough
This pest, pest whooping ...
, Polio, measles
Measles in children - may cause serious complications
Rubella - it is better to be vaccinated
Mumps. Most of the vaccinations children do when they turn two months, since this age, they start to get breast milk are fewer antibodies. In general, vaccines are considered very safe and effective means to protect children from disease. Usually they do not cause more severe side effects than a slight skin rash and fever.