Zirtek - second generation antihistamine, which is used for the treatment of various allergic diseases. Zyrtec perfectly removes the unpleasant consequences of allergic reactions in the form of redness, swelling and itching. It can be used also for the prevention of allergic reactions.
Mechanism of action
Zyrtec (INN - cetirizine) manufactures pharmaceutical company YUSB (Belgium) 10 mg tablets and drops. In much of the drug analogues, various pharmaceutical firms cetirizine sold under the name: alerza, allertek, Analergin, zetrinal, zintset, Zyrtec, zodak, Letizen S, cetirizine, parlazin, cetirizine hydrochloride, tsetirinaks, tsetrin.
Zyrtec is a blocker of peripheral histamine H1 receptors, ie, blocks the action of histamine - the main substance of all allergic reactions. For therapeutic doses it has no significant sedative and hypnotic effect.
Zyrtec is particularly effective in the early stages of development of an allergic reaction, because it blocks the action of histamine and prevent any unpleasant effects of histamine, such as expansion and increased permeability of capillaries (redness - swelling - urticaria), stimulation of the sensory nerve endings (itching and pain), and contraction of smooth muscles of internal organs (eg, bronchospasm).
If we assume zirtek late phase allergic reactions, it inhibits the release of histamine and migration of eosinophils and other cells, weakening the late allergic reaction. It also suppresses other mechanisms of allergic reactions. Zyrtec increased significantly reduces allergic mood of the bronchi, evolving in response to the release of histamine in patients with bronchial asthma. It also suppresses allergic skin reactions in patients with cold urticaria. Clinical studies have shown that Zyrtec is able to significantly improve the quality of life in patients with allergic diseases such as seasonal and year-round.
When administered drug is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract into the blood entering first, and then the tissue. Through the blood-brain barrier does not pass (i.e., misses in the brain), excreted by the kidneys unchanged. It provided also with human milk.
Action Zirteka begins 20 minutes after oral administration, peak action occurs within 60 minutes and the total duration of up to a day. The skin regains its normal reaction to histamine three days after discontinuation.
Indications and Contraindications
Zyrtec is prescribed for adults and children older than six months at the following allergic diseases and allergic reactions:
- the seasonal exacerbation of allergic rhinitis and allergic conjunctivitis, as well as year-round flow of these diseases;
- with hay fever or hay fever - a reaction to pollen in the form of allergic rhinitis and conjunctivitis;
- hives - an allergic reaction, which appears whitish, itchy blisters on the skin; If the blisters spread and merge together, it can begin angioedema (swelling of the subcutaneous tissue);
- in other allergic skin diseases (atopic dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, and so on) accompanied by itching and rashes.
Contraindications Zirteka are:
- Pregnancy and breast-feeding
Breastfeeding - a personal choice
- Children under six months;
- individual intolerance of components.
With caution, and perhaps in an individual dose of Zyrtec is prescribed for moderate to severe renal impairment and elderly patients. When receiving Zirteka should refrain from drinking alcohol. During the reception Zirteka better not to engage in potentially dangerous activities (such as driving a car), or at least be careful.
Side effects and overdose
When receiving Zirteka, the following side effects:
- Central nervous system - lethargy drowsiness, headache (including migraine form), dizziness
Dizziness - if the ground is slipping from under his feet
- from the gastrointestinal tract - dry mouth sometimes - diarrhea;
- allergic reactions - rashes (including urticaria), angioedema, pruritus.
Overdose practically does not happen, but if you increase the therapeutic dose five times, then increased sharply all the side effects, also anxiety, irritability
Irritability - you try to control my temper
, Urinary retention, dry mouth, constipation, mydriasis, palpitation. In this case, treatment is discontinued, the stomach was washed and then allowed to drink to the patient several tablets charcoal
Activated carbon - old but indispensable