Heart attack - this is a life-threatening condition that can lead to irreversible damage to the heart muscle. Unfortunately, many people just do not pay attention to the symptoms of a heart attack.
In most cases people during myocardial appears at least one of the following:
- Pressing pain in the left or center of the chest, which lasts for a few minutes or more;
- Pain spreading to the shoulders, arms and neck (often, but not always - it is on the left side). The pain can be very strong and almost palpable. The nature of the pain can be very different - from the sharp, stabbing pain, to oppressive and dull;
- General feeling of discomfort and malaise, dizziness
Dizziness - if the ground is slipping from under his feet
, Lightheadedness or fainting;
- Shortness of breath, in severe cases - respiratory arrest;
- Increased sweating;
- Strong feelings of anxiety, nervousness;
- Increased heart rate or irregular heartbeat.
If you have any of these symptoms and / or if someone in your family complains about these symptoms, immediately call an ambulance.
Symptoms prior heart attack
If you have ever experienced chest pain
Chest pain is one symptom - a lot of diseases
Especially during exercise or strong psychological stress, you probably thought that this may be related to heart disease. Indeed, heart pain
Pain in the heart - always consult a doctor
- Angina - may be the first sign of coronary artery disease, which is the most common cause of heart attacks. The first attacks usually pass quickly and do not cause severe, acute pain - on this occasion it is possible to express regret, as it is for this reason that many patients simply ignore the symptoms.
Heart pain is essentially a protest from the heart muscle does not receive enough oxygen due to restricted blood flow thereto. A heart attack - a state of extreme oxygen deficiency, in which the cells of the heart muscle begin to die en masse.
Despite the danger of this state, according to a recently concluded study, every fourth case of a heart attack does not cause virtually no symptoms - or at least the symptoms are so minor that the patient does not associate them with serious problems. The absence of severe pain in this case does not mean there are no damages. Because of the risk of "silent heart attack" is strongly recommended that at the first signs of angina
Symptoms of angina - chest discomfort
pass inspection. This will help to prevent more serious health problems.
How and why it may be a myocardial infarction
Myocardial infarction is the result of a sharp sudden narrowing or blockage of the coronary arteries (i.e. arteries supplying the heart muscle). This cardiac muscle cells no longer receive oxygen and nutrients and begin to die.
The larger the affected artery, the greater the portion of the heart muscle is supplied with blood, and it will be more plot necrotic tissue (site necrosis). In connection with this criterion distinguishes macrofocal and small-focal myocardial infarction.
Different can spread the process of necrosis in the wall itself cardiac tissue for the entire thickness (transmural myocardial infarction), deep in the heart muscle (intramural myocardial infarction), on the outer surface of the heart muscle (subepicardial myocardial infarction), on the inner surface of the cardiac muscle ( subendocardial myocardial infarction).
Myocardial infarction is more common in men and is constantly "younger" if he had previously met mainly in the second half of life, today myocardial infarction before the age of thirty years, no one is surprised. In women, the myocardial infarction occurs mainly in the elderly.
Symptoms of myocardial infarction macrofocal
Macrofocal myocardial infarction is typical for the period of precursors, the acute period and a gradual decrease in acute phenomena down to the residual effects.
The period is also called precursors preinfarction condition. This period may be different and depends on the severity of the underlying disease (eg, coronary heart disease). A sign of this period may be strengthening the heart attacks of pain or the appearance of them for the first time.
Against the background of such precursors appear severe pain in the center of the chest (behind the breastbone), extending to the left shoulder and left arm. The pain can be so strong that it can cause a painful shock to a sharp drop in blood pressure and increasing weakness. At the same time can join nausea and vomiting. This is called acute period, which can last from several minutes to several hours. During this period there is a gradual necrosis of the heart muscle.
Gradually, the pain in my heart are reduced or completely. This suggests that the acute period of acute replaced during which formed a clear portion of the heart muscle necrosis. Necrotic portion of the heart muscle conducts bad heart pulses, so may appear different cardiac arrhythmias. The collapse of the fabric contributes to the emergence of a high temperature. Acute period can last from several days to two weeks.
After the site necrosis fully formed, in his place of connective tissue begins to form scar. This period is called subacute, it lasts about a month. At this time, the patient's condition gradually improved, heart pains he was no longer worried, cardiac arrhythmia become smaller.
Gradually, the subacute period of transition in post-infarction, which can last up to six months. During this time, the scar in the heart muscle becomes thick (less likely to rupture of the heart muscle), the heart begins to work properly and rhythmically. The work of dead heart muscle tissue take on the newly formed cells of the myocardium (heart muscle thickens).
Symptoms of myocardial infarction melkoochagovogo
During melkoochagovogo myocardial infarction isolated precursors during acute period and the period of recovery.
Despite the fact that between the intensity of pain and the degree of myocardial damage is not always full compliance, the pain of small-focal myocardial infarction is usually less severe and prolonged. Less common temperature rise to high numbers, cardiac arrhythmias and heart failure events.
Sometimes small-focal myocardial infarction is a harbinger macrofocal, including transmural myocardial injury.
Symptoms of atypical myocardial infarction
Sometimes a heart attack is unusual (atypical) symptoms: no pain in my heart with an increase in heart failure, which says that the heart is unable to cope with its function. Atypical forms of myocardial infarction sometimes begin with various arrhythmias of the heart rhythm may become very fast or very slow and wrong.
Sometimes myocardial infarction may show a general malaise and weakness and then transfer it to patients on their feet. If a heart attack does not go into macrofocal form, in the future it will be possible to accidentally (sometimes a few years later) detected by examination of the patient.
Myocardial infarction - a serious illness, the symptoms of which everyone should know.