The physiological basis of thinking were deeply studied by Russian scientists IM Sechenov and IP Pavlov, but the thinking can not be fully explained by the physiological activity of the unit, as it is inextricably linked with the cerebral cortex, with the voice of labor and human activity.
What kinds of thinking and thought disorders
Thinking - is the highest form of active reflection of objective reality in the form of a focused, mediated and generalized knowledge of connections and relations of things. Thinking is formed in the process of social and working life and is expressed in the form of concepts and categories formed the previous experience of mankind. Thinking converts sensations and perceptions of reality that allows a person to get comprehensive knowledge of the properties of objects, the relations between them and the relationship in human society.
The process of thought is realized in the form of specific actions (operations) analysis (separation of the whole into components), synthesis (connection of individual components into a single unit), comparison (comparison of characteristics and properties of the object), generalization (selection of features common to many objects) abstraction (highlight one of the parties object or phenomenon, and not paying attention to the other) and specificity (consideration of a particular object or phenomenon from the point of view of the general laws).
Thought disorders are one of the most common symptoms for mental illnesses. They can be of three types: a violation of the operating side of thinking, violation of the dynamics of thinking (eg, slowness of thought or viscosity in some cases), and violations of motivation (as an essential acts that do not comply with human life goals) thinking.
Violations of the operating side of thinking (mainly operations of generalization, abstraction and concretization) lead to violations of logic thinking in the form of moralizing, formalism, circumstantial speech thinking, unclear thinking and paralogical both.
Moralizing - is a penchant for lengthy, boring and lengthy arguments moralistic nature of anything. Patients without taking into account the specific facts and circumstances and does not seek to achieve in their arguments a particular purpose or to make any conclusions. As a result, it takes groundless. Such talk is usually ornate, stilted and verbose - a speech about anything. For example, the question about the relationship with his family the patient may at length to talk about family relationships, not touching anything in particular.
Moralizing can be quite harmless, appearing lengthy reasoning and common truths that are served with the most meaningful view. But logic-chopping could be a sign of mental illness. For example, schizophrenia is characterized by short-logic-chopping: short general vague answers to specific questions, for example, the question about how his case, the patient says that nowadays no one can know how to do it. In epilepsy manifests itself in the form of logic-chopping long moralistic, teachings, emphasizing the superiority of the patient on the people around him.
Formalism - a commitment to observe the external form to the detriment of the merits. This person is not paying attention to the real value of fact or nature of the phenomenon, and some of its formal expression. For example, the question of where the patient lives, he can answer that does not live, and lived, as he is in the hospital, and the question of what he was doing, he replied that lying in bed. In these answers is visible only to the outer side of the case, as a matter of fact there is.
The formalism of thinking of mentally ill people may show a literal interpretation of proverbs and sayings - such patients are unable to understand their allegorical meaning. Formal thinking is typical of patients with schizophrenia.
Circumstantial speech thinking
Circumstantial speech thinking (viscosity) - a high detail any speech, in which it lost the meaning and essence. Such patients inability to separate the important from the secondary, then there is a disturbance of operations of generalization and abstraction. Thoughts and data sets not in the logical and spatial-temporal sequence starting from afar and accompanied by repetitions, stop, and so slow the story that patients often forget that they are trying to say. Circumstantial speech thinking is characteristic of patients with epilepsy
Epilepsy - a sacred disease
Unclear thinking - thinking is without a purpose, a logically unfounded transitions from one thought to another, without the time and place of the event. This vague such patients, in violation of the order and a permanent loss of the thread of conversation. They just say what comes to mind, jumping from one event to another, without delimiting the past from the present. For example, when the question of the state of health of the patient tells his whole life jumping from one event to another. This kind of thinking is typical for disorders of schizophrenia.
Paralogical biased thinking different schools of thought, are taken into account only those events that match the patient's beliefs. All that is contrary to this belief, considered improper. For example, the loss of parcels at the post office is considered as theft, the possibility of other reasons simply not considered.
At the same time, all the arguments surrounding the patient to look strange and illogical. This type of thought disorder characterized by patients with schizophrenia
Schizophrenia - to blame civilization
Signs of the disorder of logical thinking are of great importance in the diagnosis of mental illness
Mental illness - ashamed to ask for help?