How not to get infected with chickenpox, and is it worth doing?

February 16, 2014

 it does not get infected with chickenpox
 How not to get infected with chickenpox? Previously, it was thought that a small child is not protected against chickenpox: the sooner it s been ill, the easier it will take. This, of course, true, but not for all children. Today, when there are statistics, we know that one out of ten affected children suffers chickenpox hard, sometimes with complications of the central nervous system and internal organs.


The contagiousness of chickenpox

Chickenpox is caused by the herpes virus type 3 - varicella zoster. Chickenpox is a very contagious infection is transmitted instantaneously. How long a patient with chickenpox is contagious? It was found that the infectious period begins chickenpox per day until the skin blisters, rashes lasts for the entire period and toe days after the last elements of an eruption. It is impossible to say exactly how many days of chicken pox is contagious from a particular patient - it will depend on the severity of the disease and the duration of the period of rashes.

How do you get chickenpox - known to almost everyone, it is enough to stay for a while at a distance from the patient - the infection is transmitted through airborne droplets when speaking, sneezing, coughing at a distance of 20 m and more. It is well known and can infect someone with chickenpox - anyone previously healthy this infection. Particularly susceptible to infection with children aged two to ten years. Carriers chickenpox - sick people.

The incubation period (the period of chickenpox infection to onset of symptoms) lasts from 10 days to three weeks on average - about two weeks. At this time there is a multiplication of pathogens at the point of introduction into the body - in the cells of the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract.


How not to get sick with chickenpox, and whether to do it

So is it worth to protect preschool children from chickenpox? Experience and statistics show that in this case the approach should be individualized. Since chickenpox is most easily transferred to children two to ten years. In adolescence and adult chicken pox occurs much heavier. Even young children can be quite difficult for chickenpox.

How not to get infected with chickenpox? Warn chickenpox or reduce the risk of severe course of the infection is possible only with the help of vaccines. In some countries, vaccination against chickenpox Vaccination against chickenpox - all you need it?  Vaccination against chickenpox - all you need it?
   included in the mandatory calendar, we do not, and the question of vaccination pediatrician decided in agreement with the parents.

If you are not vaccinated before the child has been in contact with a sick chickenpox, the vaccine will not help, as the response to the vaccine in the body do not have time to develop antibodies. In this case, prevent chickenpox or make the disease had not difficult, it is possible only by means of a special immunoglobulin containing antibodies to pathogens ready chickenpox.


How to prevent chickenpox vaccination using

Currently, there are vaccines against chickenpox, made on the basis of attenuated herpes virus type 3 Herpes type 3 - causes chicken pox and shingles  Herpes type 3 - causes chicken pox and shingles
 . In our country the use of the vaccine Okavaks (Japan) and Varilriks (Belgium). Vaccination against chickenpox in Russia is not included in the national immunization schedule, but it is recommended for the introduction of weak people, people in closed communities (eg, military) and women without a history of chickenpox and planning pregnancy. The introduction of the chickenpox vaccine for children is possible after one year and adults.

The introduction of the vaccine, the majority of people (more than 90%) produced specific humoral and cellular immunity suppress reproduction varicella virus, which leads to the prevention of disease. Effect of vaccination begins almost immediately after injection (immediately begins to produce antibody and ends the process after 1, 5 months) and lasts for years.

It is also possible emergency prophylaxis of varicella in previously were ill and not vaccinated persons who have been in contact with sick chicken pox. This prevention will be effective in the case with contact points was not more than 72-96 hours.


How to prevent chickenpox using immunoglobulin

Specific immunoglobulin against chickenpox VariZIG prepared from the blood of people recover from chickenpox, which contains ready-made antibodies Antibodies - "soldiers' immunity  Antibodies - "soldiers' immunity
   varicella zoster virus. It is believed that such an immunoglobulin is effective for the first four days (96 hours) after contact with a patient with chickenpox. But lately, there is evidence that there is a sense immunoglobulin administered within 10 days after contact with the patient.

Immunoglobulin is administered to pregnant women who have not previously had chickenpox and have been in contact with sick and people with reduced immunity Immunity - types and characteristics in children in adults  Immunity - types and characteristics in children in adults
   and weakened.

In order not to get infected with chickenpox, it's better to be vaccinated - it or get rid of the disease, or its severe.

Galina Romanenko

Article Tags:
  • Treatment of chickenpox

Acyclovir - minor contraindications

January 29, 2012

 acyclovir contraindications
 Acyclovir - is an antiviral drug that has no toxic effects on the body, and hence does not have a large number of contraindications. Acyclovir is not contraindicated even during pregnancy (he was appointed, but with caution), and this is saying a lot.

 Acyclovir - minor contraindications

Why Acyclovir has few contraindications

This follows from its mechanism of action: acyclovir Acyclovir - as it is safe?  Acyclovir - as it is safe?
   It penetrates only in cells infected with the virus to healthy cells it exerts no action. This happens because the virus infected cells begin to secrete an enzyme that converts acyclovir into an active state, and allows it to penetrate into the cells, overcoming the protection of the membrane. In infected cells, virus replication occurs, acyclovir blocking this process.

Show sensitivity to acyclovir herpes virus type I and II, causing herpetic lesion of the skin of the lips and body, as well as genital herpes. In addition, chuvstvtielen acyclovir herpes virus that causes chickenpox and shingles Shingles and chickenpox - from the same pathogen  Shingles and chickenpox - from the same pathogen
 And also (in lesser extent) cytomegalovirus Cytomegalovirus - what is its danger?  Cytomegalovirus - what is its danger?

Acyclovir is available in tablets (200, 400, 800 mg) in dry matter in vials for solution for injection, in the form of ointments, ophthalmic ointments and creams. Most side effects caused by administration of acyclovir intravenously, is considered the safest use of acyclovir dosage forms for topical and local application.

 Acyclovir - minor contraindications

What are the possible side effects of the treatment with acyclovir

Acyclovir - a non-toxic drug, it gives little side effects, nonetheless, they have before administration of the drug and the doctor to tell them to a patient.

When the pill inside may cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, various skin rashes, headaches, dizziness, sleep disturbances, decreased performance and concentration, hallucinations, hair loss, transient disorders of the liver and kidneys (seen in changing the laboratory), reduction in the number of blood leukocytes and erythrocytes.

When administered intravenously acyclovir side effects other than those described may develop severe complications from the kidney - acute renal failure due to the fact that renal tissue salt crystals are deposited. There are also serious side effects in the central nervous system in the form of excitation, which is replaced by sleepiness, hallucinations, seizures. If the patient in time will not be helped, he may plunge into a coma. At the site of injection of acyclovir may develop inflammatory processes, including the walls of the vein (phlebitis).

The local application of 3% ophthalmic ointment may cause itching and burning in the eyes, superficial inflammation in the cornea, conjunctiva and eyelid margins. For external use ointment 5% and 5% cream in place of their application may cause itching, burning, dryness, peeling, skin rash, mucosal redness and swelling.

 Acyclovir - minor contraindications

Who should not take acyclovir

Contraindications acyclovir only two: individual intolerance of the drug and breast-feeding Breastfeeding - a personal choice  Breastfeeding - a personal choice
   breast - acyclovir is excreted in breast milk.

With caution and in lower doses should be prescribed acyclovir with severe kidney disease in violation of their function as deposition in renal tissue salt crystals can cause even greater aggravation of the problem. In order to reduce the deposition of salt crystals in the kidneys, the patient should drink more. With extreme caution should be used in such patients, intravenous administration of the drug, as it is fraught with the development of acute renal failure. During the course of treatment with acyclovir should monitor kidney function by means of laboratory tests.

During pregnancy acyclovir is prescribed, but with caution, only if the expected benefit to the mother's body than the potential risk to the body of the child. But in practice, it sets the safety of acyclovir for pregnant women and the fetus. Of course, all must be treated under the supervision of a physician and under laboratory control as acyclovir can cause renal dysfunction, liver and changes in the mother's blood, and pass through the placenta to the fetus.

Precautions Acyclovir appointed the elderly and patients with impaired liver function, they may also be administered smaller doses of the drug. By carefully following the indications and contraindications also require those with mental and neurological disorders, dehydration of any origin, cardiovascular failure.

Acyclovir has few contraindications, but treatment with this drug must be conducted under the supervision of a physician.

Galina Romanenko

Article Tags:
  • acyclovir