Antivirals - basic classification

November 23, 2008

   Antivirals - a medicinal products intended for the treatment and prevention of various viral diseases including influenza, herpes, HIV and other infections.

Viruses are a large group of infectious agents smallest formed molekuloynukleinovoy acid (DNA or RNA) enclosed in a protective protein shell (capsid). Viruses can not be considered living organisms in the traditional sense, since they, in contrast to the cells of living organisms do not have a cell membrane. Viruses can reproduce only inside living cells, and are the causative agents of many infectious diseases. Viruses are usually not susceptible to antibiotics Antibiotics - whether they will help you in the foreseeable future?  Antibiotics - whether they will help you in the foreseeable future?
 But drugs can stop the growth of certain viruses and destroy them.

 Antivirals - basic classification

For the treatment of viral diseases, the following formulations (data 2004):

  • Acyclovir (Zovirax): used for the treatment of diseases caused by herpes simplex and herpes zoster. Acyclovir is also used for the treatment of encephalitis in neonates. This drug is most effective when administered intravenously.
  • Amantidine (Symmetrel) is used for the prevention and treatment of influenza A virus-type. Amantidine recommended for people who can not or should not be vaccinated against the influenza virus.
  • Foscarnet (foskavir): not recommended for small children, but is widely used for the treatment of viral infections in adolescents and adults. Foscarnet is used to treat cytomegalovirus eye infections and herpes simplex infections Herpes simplex - in fact, not so simple  Herpes simplex - in fact, not so simple
 Resistant to other drugs.
  • Ganciclovir (tsitoven) is used to treat cytomegalovirus eye infections.
  • Oseltamivir (Tamiflu) is used to treat viral infections of influenza in children over the age of 13 years. Oseltamivir is also used for prevention of influenza in adults.
  • Ribavirin (Rebetol, virazole): used to treat infants and young children with severe lower respiratory tract infections caused by respiratory syncytial virus.
  • Remantidin (flumadin) is used for the prevention of influenza A virus-type.
  • Valacyclovir (Valtrex) is used to treat diseases caused by herpes simplex and herpes zoster Shingles and chickenpox - from the same pathogen  Shingles and chickenpox - from the same pathogen
 . This drug is converted in the body to acyclovir Acyclovir - as it is safe?  Acyclovir - as it is safe?
   and it is more suitable for oral administration. Valacyclovir is recommended for use in pediatric patients.
  • Vidarabine (faith-A): used for the treatment of severe herpes infections in newborns, but its main purpose - the treatment of herpes infections of the eye.
  • Zanamivir (Relenza) is used to treat infections of influenza caused by viruses types A and B in adults and children older than seven years.

Besides the above preparations, there are means for the treatment of retroviral infections. Retroviruses are composed of an RNA molecule, but not DNA and amenable to treatment once the virus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). These drugs in particular are:

  • Abacavir (Ziagen);
  • amprenavir (ageneraza);
  • didanosine (Videx);
  • efavirenz (Sustiva)
  • indinavir (kriksavan);
  • lamivudine (Epivir);
  • Lopinavir / ritonavir (Kaletra);
  • stavudine (Zerit);
  • nelfinavir (Viracept);
  • ritonavir (Norvir);
  • saquinavir (Fortovase, Invirase);
  • zalcitabine (givid);
  • AZT (Retrovir).

 Antivirals - basic classification

Side effects of antiviral drugs

Each of the drugs has its own side effects. Carefully study the information on the drug package insert or consult your physician.

Indinavir (Crixivan) has a unique side effect, which no other antiviral drugs - it causes changes in the distribution of adipose tissue. This side effect is less obvious, but brings considerable discomfort. Contraindicated stop taking antiretroviral drugs, except in cases when the planned transition to other means of antiretroviral therapy.

 Antivirals - basic classification

Drug interactions

For information on drug interactions of each specific antiviral drug, see insert. Before use of antiviral drugs, tell your doctor about all the medicines you are taking.

Acceptance of AIDS drugs is not recommended to stop without first consulting your doctor. AIDS drugs usually administered in combinations of two or three drugs, and termination of a single drug can result in the development of viral resistance to other agents.

 Antivirals - basic classification


Antiviral drugs for influenza should be used only if the vaccination is for any reason impossible. Annual vaccination is the preferred method for the prevention of influenza.

Some antiviral drugs, particularly anti-retroviral drugs have serious side effects and should not be taken without a doctor's prescription, which must continuously monitor the patient throughout the course of treatment. Regular laboratory tests are essential to ensure safe and effective use of antiretroviral drugs.

Efficiency antiherpetic drugs in reducing the severity and duration of acute herpes is limited, they do not guarantee a complete cure, but they reduce the risk of further spread and transmission. Therefore, the constant use of these drugs, it is important for family members of the patient and those who are with him in the immediate vicinity. Admission antiherpetic drugs can not be stopped, even if there are no visible improvements.

Kagocel: Contraindications - allergic reactions

February 26, 2012

 Kagocel contraindications reception
 Kagocel - it's quite effective antiviral and immunomodulatory drug that has very few contraindications for use and virtually no side effects. This happens because Kagocel stimulates the body's own production of interferon.

 Kagocel: Contraindications - allergic reactions

Why Kagocel almost no contraindications

Kagocel - domestic drug developed at the Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology of RAMS Gamalei manufacturer - OOO "Niarmedik Plus". A special feature of this drug is that it mildly stimulates the synthesis of interferon own person. Interferon - a protein that is produced by various cells in response to the introduction of viruses. Such endogenous interferon, unlike introduced externally (exogenous) does not have any detrimental effects on the body and fully included in the work for the destruction of viruses or prevent their introduction into the body.

Unlike endogenous interferon, which is produced in response to the reception of tablets Kagocel exogenous interferon (as prepared from donated blood and genetic engineering of bacterial mass method) can cause flu syndrome, headache, dizziness Dizziness - if the ground is slipping from under his feet  Dizziness - if the ground is slipping from under his feet
 Functional disorders of the nervous system in the form of irritability Irritability - you try to control my temper  Irritability - you try to control my temper
 , Increased anxiety, depression, insomnia. There may also ischemic attacks, tremors, blurred vision, nausea, vomiting, change in stool, abdominal pain Abdominal pain: Types and Symptoms  Abdominal pain: Types and Symptoms
 , Bloating, liver function disorders and certain other side effects.

That is why today, much attention is paid to the development, production and introduction into clinical practice of medicines, promoting the development of their own endogenous interferon. These medicines are domestic products arbidol, tsikloferon TSikloferon - restores the body's defenses  TSikloferon - restores the body's defenses
   and Kagocel.

 Kagocel: Contraindications - allergic reactions

Why Kagocel contraindicated in certain patient population

Kagocel passed all the necessary clinical trials based on the Influenza Research Institute and other medical institutions. It has been found that it makes practically no side effects other than allergic reactions. Feature allergies such that they can occur on any material and even on its own tissues. Kagocel allergies are rare, but can occur. Are allergic to Kagocel differently. It may have a different skin rashes, including urticaria, angioedema (it can reach the throat and cause respiratory failure), anaphylactic shock, and so on.

During clinical trials the volunteers who took Kagocel, pointed out that the drug is very well tolerated, with no side effects (including the part of the digestive system), allergic reactions are extremely rare. This non-toxic drug, as its therapeutic dose is much lower than the limit of toxicity determined in laboratory animals. Kagocel not stored by the body and excreted out of it most of the next week, and completely (without leaving even a trace) - in a month.

Preventive course Kagocel during seasonal raising the incidence of viral respiratory infection causes a decrease in the incidence of diseases more than twice. At the same time the effect of its reception is held during the month.

In patients with seasonal viral infections, Kagocel treated with curative intent, much less complications arise, quickly ended a hectic period and signs of intoxication. All clinical trials have been confirmed by laboratory tests, which were carried out before and after Kagocel and confirmed the complete absence of toxicity.

But clinical trials have not been conducted in pregnant women, nursing mothers and children under 6 years old, so no one knows how these contingents patients may respond to receiving Kagocel. Despite the fact that in laboratory studies in different animal species was confirmed by the complete absence of any adverse effects on the fetus Kagocel (animals it was given at doses exceeding therapeutic repeatedly), the lack of clinical trials is an obstacle for administration of the drug to pregnant women.

The same can be said for children up to six years. As for nursing mothers in the course of laboratory and clinical tests, it was found that about 20% Kagocel absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract into the bloodstream, and therefore it can be released from the mother's milk. Therefore, if the reception Kagocel woman needs for health, it is necessary to interrupt breastfeeding.

Of course, Kagocel contraindicated if you are hypersensitive and its components.

Kagocel - it is safe and effective antiviral drug that virtually no side reactions and adverse events, and therefore it is recommended as a modern tool for the prevention and treatment of seasonal viral infections in adults and children after six years.

Galina Romanenko

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